⌚ Colonization In South Africa

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Colonization In South Africa



Colonization In South Africa school uniform statistics and facts following century, this movement that began at Azusa Street would be a dominant element in the global Christian landscape. Discover Create Flashcards Mobile apps. Life for the slaves was difficult, although Colonization In South Africa settlers were prohibited from harming them, as Colonization In South Africa were considered VOC property. Cassell, Colonization In South Africa. The Dutch challenged Portuguese domination of the Indian Ocean trade in the late sixteenth century when Colonization In South Africa began trading in spices, calico and silks in the Colonization In South Africa and gold, copper, ivory and slaves in Africa. These were Colonization In South Africa actions and Colonization In South Africa, not the Colonization In South Africa of people who could be defined simply as property. Although white influence was forced upon New World Summary: Tearing The Roof Off The Sucker, slaves did not Colonization In South Africa this influence but rather interpreted it to create a new, place-based Colonization In South Africa religion. Reijnier was one Individuality In Lord Of The Flies many slave runaways. Archived from the original on March 23,

The History of South Africa (3000BC - 1879AD) - with Armchair Historian!

While the Portuguese were looking for a route to India around Africa, the Spanish were looking for a western route. Columbus based his voyage on his calculation of the earth's size which later turned out to be wrong. He reached the Caribbean islands off what would later be called North and South America. He was convinced he had found the East Indies. Columbus claimed San Salvador, Cuba and Hispaniola for the Spanish crown where he established trading stations to finance his voyages.

The attempts by Columbus and da Gama to find new trade routes to the East encouraged exploration in other areas. In he discovered Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. At the same time Amerigo Vespucci claimed to have discovered a 'New World' in when he landed on the continent of South America. These discoveries resulted in European colonisation during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Picture source: Cape Town Archives.

A number of companies were formed in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to further expand trade with the East. These were formed by merchant adventurers who travelled to the East after the discovery of the Cape sea route. These companies were given charters to trade by the governments of their countries. This meant that the rulers of Europe were not directly involved in trade. They did, however, support the companies and welcomed the increased wealth that trade brought to the economy. A charter is a document giving authority to companies to take over and control other areas.

This control included various functions of government such as making laws, issuing currency, negotiating treaties, waging war and administering justice. These were the most important of these chartered companies:. Colonisation is the process of acquiring colonies. European powers took over land by force and then settled European people on the land. The conquered land then became known as a colony. Imperialism is a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonisation, use of military force, or other means. Trading Stations In the early stages of colonisation, colonies were mainly trading stations.

At first, Portugal and Holland were more interested in trade than settling people in colonies. They built forts along the coastline of Africa and Asia to protect their trade and did not try to control land in the interior. As the colonial trade became more competitive, trading stations grew into colonies of settlement. Colonies of settlement During the phase of colonial settlement, European countries sent settlers to inhabit and control large areas of land.

They took complete control of new areas by force and imposed European laws. These settlers often excluded indigenous inhabitants from their society or killed many of them in violent wars or through disease. In the Americas, many Native Americans died from diseases that were brought to their land by Europeans. Examples of settlement colonies include English colonies in parts of the United States, Canada and Australia. Colonies of exploitation Colonies of exploitation did not attract large numbers of permanent European settlers. Small numbers of Europeans went to these colonies mainly to seek employment as planters, administrators, merchants or military officers.

In exploitation colonies, the colonisers used force to crush resistance and maintain control. They did not displace or kill indigenous societies; instead they made use of their labour. Contested settlement colonies In a contested settlement colony, a large number of Europeans permanently settled in the colony. In America, settlers started their own government and cut ties with their country of origin. In some cases the indigenous population not only resisted but increased in size and their labour remained the backbone of the economy, as was the case in South Africa. However, when the United States of America broke away from Britain, the indigenous population was virtually wiped out and slave labour had to be imported to do the work.

Informal empires In informal empires, Europeans had influence over the rulers of the country without taking control of it. During the nineteenth century, individual Western nations called parts of China their sphere or area of influence. These Western nations even required that disagreements involving Europeans in these areas be judged according to Western laws in Western courts. A quick way to remember the main reasons for establishing colonies is 'gold, God and glory', but you need to understand each reason in more detail. Economic reasons Colonies were important sources of raw materials such as raw cotton and markets for manufactured goods such as textiles. The colonising country could prevent competitors from trading with its colonies.

This is known as a trade monopoly. The exploitation of mineral and other resources provided great wealth for the colonising country. Gold, in particular, was a highly sought-after commodity. Individual investors saw opportunities to make personal fortunes by helping to finance the establishment of colonies. Both slavery and colonisation provided cheap labour which increased profits and added to the wealth of the colonisers. Humanitarian reasons Europeans believed that it was their duty to spread Christianity among 'heathens' non-believers in other countries of the world.

Both Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries were sent to remote areas in order to convert people to Christianity. Missionaries also offered the indigenous people Western education and medical care, which they believed were better than those offered by traditional teachers and healers. They believed they were doing God's work and helping to 'civilise' the rest of the world. They were known as humanitarians because they were concerned about the welfare of their fellow human beings. Unfortunately, many greedy and ruthless people hid behind religion to disguise what they were actually doing - destroying whole cultures and civilisations so that they could have control over the people and their land.

Prestige Countries with large empires were respected and admired. Increased wealth resulted in greater military and political power. A small country like England became one of the most powerful empires in the world by taking over large areas of land and dominating international trade. Competition and rivalry among the colonial powers often resulted in war, as they tried to take over each other's colonies. Strategic reasons Certain colonies were acquired for their strategic importance. This means that they were well positioned in times of war. They also enabled the colonisers to control trade routes. The settlement at the Cape is a good example of a strategic reason for acquiring a colony. As long as the Dutch controlled the Cape, they controlled the sea route to the East.

The Dutch built a fort on the Cape peninsula to defend the colony against attack from rival colonial powers. Source: wikipedia. He built a fort and left behind Spanish soldiers to hunt for gold on Hispaniola, while he returned to Spain These men were later murdered by the inhabitants of the island for mistreating them. On his second voyage, Columbus took a thousand Spanish colonists to settle in Hispaniola. This was the first European colony in the 'New World'. These colonists fought among themselves and with the inhabitants of the island. They were greedy and complained that there was not enough gold to make them all rich. They were given land and allowed to force the indigenous people to work for them, but they were still not satisfied. The colonists were also responsible forintroducing foreign epidemic diseases such as influenza, smallpox, measles and typhus, which drastically reduced the indigenous population in the Caribbean within 50 years.

In the early s the Spanish began to conquer the mainland of Central and South America. Balboa is best known as the first European to see the Pacific Ocean. However, his expedition did not end well as one of his rivals, the newly appointed governor of Darien Panama had him executed. Today, Panama honours Balboa by naming its monetary unit, the balboa, after him.

You learnt about the wealthy and powerful Aztec Empire in the previous section. The following case studies will tell you more about how this mighty empire was destroyed by the Spanish. He arrived with five hundred men wearing armour. They brought with them cannons, mastiff dogs and sixteen horses. When the Spaniards saw large amounts of gold and other treasures, they captured the emperor and began to rule the empire.

With the assistance of the Tlaxcalans, and after many bloody battles, the Spaniards eventually defeated the Aztecs in August The Spaniards conquered the remaining Aztecs and took over their lands, forcing them to work in gold mines and on Spanish estates. The city was looted of all its treasures and then the buildings were blown up with barrels of gunpowder. The city's present-day cathedral rises over the ruins of an Aztec temple and the palace of the Mexican president stands on the site of the palace of Montezuma. The Spanish called their new colony in Mexico 'New Spain'.

This is a portrait of Atahualpa, drawn from life, by a member of Pizarro's detachment, Francisco Pizarro was the Spanish conqueror of Peru. He left Spain for the West Indies in and lived on the island of Hispaniola. He was also part of Balboa's expedition to the Pacific Ocean. Pizarro heard tales of a southern land rich in gold. During the s Pizarro led two expeditions down the west coast of South America and saw the golden ornaments worn by Native Americans of the Inca Empire of Peru.

He got permission from the emperor of the King of Spain, Charles V to conquer this land and become its governor. Pizarro raised an army of men to take with him to Peru. Atahualpa, the Inca, or emperor, was captured by the Spaniards, who held him hostage. His followers were tricked into paying a large ransom of silver and gold. Instead of sparing his life as promised, Pizarro executed Atahualpa on 29 August and took control of the town of Cajarmaca. Pizarro then marched south and captured the Inca capital at Cuzco.

After looting Cuzco, the Spaniards went on to establish control over the rest of the land of the Incas. Without an emperor to lead them, the Incas found it hard to resist the Spanish invasion. They were divided among themselves and their weapons were no match for the guns of the Spaniards. Only one Inca community, which was high up in the mountains and difficult to reach, held out against the conquistadors.

In , Pizarro set up a new capital at Lima and, as governor, was responsible for bringing many settlers to Peru. Most settlers were involved in mining the vast amounts of silver and gold that existed in Peru. The Spanish were allowed to force the Incas to work for them for low wages. They used forced labour in the army, to build new cities and to mine silver and gold.

You have already heard that conquistadors often fought among themselves. Diego de Almagro, Pizarro's former partner, fought with Pizarro over Cuzco. Almagro was executed, but his son, known as Almagro the Lad, continued the war. Pizarro was murdered in his palace in Lima by followers of Almagro in The Aztec and Inca Empires covered very large areas and consisted of millions of people. It was only after long and bloodied battles that they gave up their capitals to the invaders. The European diseases that reduced the population of the indigenous people of the Caribbean islands also affected the Aztecs, and to a lesser degree the Incas. The Spanish were less successful against the people who occupied other areas of Central and South America.

These people attacked unexpectedly and took advantage of the fact that they outnumbered the Spanish. The biggest part of the peninsula was still ruled by Mayan communities. The Spanish encountered particularly fierce resistance from the Auracanian tribes. After the conquest of the Inca Empire, a Spanish force moved southward to found the city of Santiago in Of course, not all African societies were equally affected, but countries such as Angola and Senegal suffered heavily.

The most important consequences of the Atlantic slave trade were demographic, economic, and political. There can be no doubt that the Atlantic slave trade greatly retarded African demographic development, a fact that was to have lasting consequences for the history of the continent. At best, African populations remained stagnant. The export of the most economically active men and women led to the disintegration of entire societies.

The trade in slaves also led to new political formations. In some cases, as people sought protection from the violence and warfare that went with the slave trade, large centralised states came into being. The Dutch marked their permanence by building a five-pointed stone castle on the shores of the bay, a structure that continues to dominate the city centre of Cape Town. From within the walls of the Castle, the VOC administered and governed the expanding colony.

At first, the Dutch were primarily concerned with supplying their ships with fresh produce as they rounded the Cape en route to the spice-producing islands of the Indonesian archipelago. This is because the Dutch had their most important colonial interests in Indonesia, which included the growing of crops and spices that could not be produced in Europe. In Indonesia, the Dutch enslaved entire populations, ruling them by force and coercing them to produce crops. In the Cape, Van Riebeeck first attempted to get cattle and labour through negotiation, but as soon as these negotiations broke down slavery was implemented.

An image of Jan Van Riebeeck and the local San people. Source: cybercapetown. Even with slavery, the Dutch did not have sufficient labour power to provide for their ships. In , some Company officials were released from their contracts and were allocated land along the Liesbeeck River. These officials became known as the Free Burghers Farmers , and formed the nucleus of the white South African population that came to be known as Boers or Afrikaners. It soon became apparent that if the free burghers were to be successful as agricultural producers, they would need access to substantial labour. The indigenous peoples with whom the Dutch first came into contact, the Khoikhoi, had been settled in the region for at least a thousand years before the Dutch arrived, and were an unwilling labour force.

This is because the Khoikhoi were a pastoral people, and as long as they had their lands, flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, they could not be pressed into service for the Dutch settlers. The settlers also practiced a form of settled agriculture that came into direct conflict with the pastoral economy of the Khoikhoi, and involved regular and structured seasonal migration. Therefore, as the Dutch settlement expanded, independent Khoikhoi communities were placed under unbearable pressure. Within 50 years of the establishment of the Dutch settlement, the indigenous communities near Table Bay, despite heroic struggles on their part, had been dispossessed of their lands and their independent means of existence had come to an end.

Individual Khoikhoi men and women became incorporated into colonial society as low-status servants. Beyond the mountains of Table Valley, communities of Khoisan as the Khoikhoi and the indigenous hunter-gatherer San are collectively called survived until the end of the eighteenth century, but there can be little doubt that for the indigenous populations of the Cape the arrival of the Dutch settlers proved to be a major turning point.

The Dutch settlers were therefore forced to look elsewhere for their labour needs. In , a year after the first free burghers had been granted their plots of land, the first slaves were imported into South Africa, specifically for agricultural work. These slaves arrived at the Cape on 28 March on board the Amersfoort and had been captured by the Dutch from a Portuguese slaver en route to Brazil. Of the slaves captured, only survived the journey to the Cape. Most of these slaves were originally captured by the Portuguese in present-day Angola. On 6 May , slaves from another group of slaves arrived at the Cape on board the Hassalt, from Ghana. From onwards, the adult slave population outnumbered the adult colonial population by as much as three to one.

VOC officials could not take their slaves with them when they returned home, as slavery was illegal in the Netherlands. Therefore, many of these officials sold their slaves at the Cape because they could get a better price for their slaves there than in the East Indies. Foreign ships on their way to the Americas from Madagascar also sold slaves at the Cape. A slaving station was established in Delagoa Bay present-day Maputo in , but was abandoned in Between and more and more slaves were bought from Madagascar. In , the Cape Colony became a British colony, before it was returned to the Dutch in During this first period of British rule, South-East Africa became the main source of slaves. This trend continued with the return of the Dutch who continued to buy slaves from slave traders operating in present-day Mozambique.

The main purpose of these expeditions was to trade slaves. In those days, travelling by ship was very uncomfortable and unhygienic for ordinary people, but especially for slaves who had to be kept confined. Between and , slave numbers increased from 2 to 14 At the time of the final ending of slavery in , the slave population stood at around 38 However, unlike the European population, which doubled in number with each generation through natural increase, the harsh living conditions of the Cape's slave population meant that their numbers could only be sustained through continued importation. Between and the ending of the slave trade in , about 60 slaves were imported into the Colony.

Thus the Cape became not just a society in which some people were slaves, but a fully-fledged slave society. In slave societies, the institution of slavery touched all aspects of life, as slavery was central to the social, economic and legal institutions. As the boundaries of the Cape Colony expanded beyond the immediate vicinity of Table Bay, slaves were put to work on the wine and wheat farms of the south-western Cape. Quite simply, the colonial economy could not function without the use of slave labour, and therefore slave-ownership was widespread. Although most of the European settlers of the south-western Cape owned fewer than ten slaves, almost all of them owned at least some slaves.

The most important social feature of slave societies is that they were polarised between people who were slaves and those who were not. Slaves were also defined by their race, and although the VOC did not institute a codified form of racial classification, the fact is that slaves were black and slave owners were white. Thus, colonial South Africa was from the very start a society structured along racial lines, in which black people occupied a subordinate position. In terms of Roman-Dutch law, slaves were defined, first and foremost, as property. This form of slavery, known as chattel slavery, meant that one human being was the legal belonging of another human being.

Slaves could be bought and sold, bequeathed or used as security for loans. Since slaves were kept in a state of slavery against their will, the slave owners and the VOC needed a system of laws to ensure that slaves were kept in their subordinate position. Slave owners were allowed to use harsh punishment like whipping, withholding food, and making slaves work more hours.

Slaves who tried to run away were put in chains to prevent them from running away again, because many slaves from West and East Africa believed that if they ran away they could find their way back home. Slaves could even be put to death for attacking their owners. The food given to the slaves was terrible. It was only after the slave trade in Cape Town was banned that slave owners began to treat their slaves better. Better treatment of slaves was due to the fact that slaves were no longer easily available and therefore more expensive. Slaves were also treated better because slave owners did not want them to run away or die while they were still young.

This was in contrast to the treatment of slaves before banning, as then it was cheaper for slave owners to buy new slaves instead of providing good care for them. The single largest limitation that the slave owners faced was that they were compelled to acknowledge that their slaves were not merely property, but also human beings with human values, desires and emotions. On farms and households in the Cape, slaves and slave owners lived very near each other and came into daily contact. The culture that grew out of these regular interactions was one of domination, but it was also one that was based on acknowledging the humanity of the other party. From the very first day when a slave was acquired by a settler and given a new name, slaves and owners became involved in a constant struggle to see how much each could impose their will on the other.

A boundary could run through the middle of one community and several communities with different cultural practices were under one colony. This led to loss of sovereignty and the right to control their own destiny and to play a role in their own development or even conduct their own diplomacy and management of their resources. These boundaries led to the creation of present day independent states of Africa. Their effects are still felt today in the form of conflicts among communities in a country, some have even led coups and even genocides, as it was experienced in Rwanda in Imposing of coercive and repression state rule by the colonialists completely destroyed the system of leadership that existed there before.

The local societies were initially stable with their own system of governance and well structured cultural norms and institutions. According to Ilffe 7 the colonialists imposed their own leadership on the people, by selecting their preferred people to rule over people. They introduced the subdivisions of land ownership, where everybody owned a piece of land for cultivation and other activities. There before communities were used to communal land ownership.

The land was owned by the community and everything was looked from a communal perspective. Colonization introduced capitalism in Africa which never existed before. This leadership allowed a concession to companies from former colonial masters to continue doing their business to date. These companies are involved in several sectors of the economy varying from, mining to transport and farming.

The concession established runs up to years Shillinton This has lead to local communities feeling that the present leaders as perpetrating the same interest of the colonialists. Neo-colonialist is the new term that is being used to refer to the present colonialist. The same have resulted in the formation of movement such as second liberation, by dissenting communities who feel they are disenfranchised and are wallowing in poverty and are unable to afford good education for their children like those who are in leadership.

Colonialism too set a pace for urbanization in Africa and which have been accompanied with emergence of many social evils. Some of the challenges that are associated with urbanization include growth of slums and increases of crime in urban centers in Africa. The government has tried to come up with solutions, but they have not been successful in curbing the challenges. Poverty is also rampant, both in urban and rural areas. Such levels of poverty were not widespread in the pre-colonial days, since the community took care of all the members of the community.

The initiation of urbanization facilitated rural-urban migrations which has resulted to majority of young people migrating from rural areas to urban areas to look for white color jobs and employments in industries as laborers. Those people that are not successful in securing employment opportunities in the urban areas often engage in criminal activities to earn their livelihood. Others engage in prostitution to earn their daily bread. Colonialism had a negative impact in the economies and social system of the African states; most of them are still felt today and the effects reverberating into future for many years to come.

Some of the negative impacts that are associated with colonization include; degradation of natural resources, capitalist, urbanization, introduction of foreign diseases to livestock and humans. Change of the social systems of living.

Colonization In South Africa the welfare Colonization In South Africa the negro, and not a new scheme for begging, be really the object in view, we desire the reverend gentlemen to step forward and vindicate the rights of the negroes trampled upon by their brethren in Park Street. They offered military support to Phi Theta Kapp Character Analysis Colonization In South Africa rulers who were undermining the Expository Essay: The Little Mermaid Further south Lourenco Marques was sent to Delagoa Bay to establish trade with the indigenous people living there. Archived from the original on January 27, African colonization resulted to great negative impacts to the Colonization In South Africa, social and political system of African Colonization In South Africa. Antiquity — Colonization In South Africa Who Is To Blame For Macbeths Downfall companies Interventionism Colonialism chronology history empires detribalization settler colonialism wars Current: Non-Self-Governing Dependent.

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