✎✎✎ Success In Americanizing Immigrants

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Success In Americanizing Immigrants



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And this was wholesome and healthy and might help a lot of people to accept themselves! So thank you Taylor Jenkins Reid! Thank you very much! Nor did it mean that Celia could only fulfil half my needs. Not because I thought there was anything wrong with loving a woman, mind you. But Celia only saw things in black and white. She liked women and only women.

And I liked her. And so she often denied the rest of me. I married a dyke. This is such an important read! Live and suffer with Evelyn, enjoy her good moments and cry with her when the world throws her for a loop! Hate her, love her, accept her the way she is. View all 37 comments. View all 26 comments. Jun 27, Maria rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites. This book is spectacular. This book is outstanding.

I have nothing negative to say about this book. It's a pure 5 star for me. I'm irrevocably astonished and astounded. I want to hug and kiss this book till I bleed. I couldn't leave it down. I just couldn't. It's am , I have to wake up in 7 hours or so and I'm casually reading this book. I'm on page , 50 pages after it got amazingly good for me. And then this line makes its fucking appearance. And I decided I would finish it.

I would read more than pages and finish it. So I went to my obligation the next day with 4 hours of sleep but I was happy about it. Because I knew I couldn't survive a whole day without finishing this book. I would die. This is the impact this book has had on me. Now, let's talk specifics. Evelyn Hugo is finally ready to tell the truth about her glamorous and scandalous life. But when she chooses unknown magazine reporter Monique Grant for the job, no one in the journalism community is more astounded than Monique herself. Her husband, David, has left her, and her career has stagnated.

Regardless of why Evelyn has chosen her to write her biography, Monique is determined to use this opportunity to jumpstart her career. Historical fiction is my favorite genre of all time. I love it in every form, books, tv shows, movies. But not this kind of historical fiction, the Outlander and Ross Poldark kind of historical fiction. The older one, you could say. Also, historical fiction about wars and stuff, which is more recent. But I have never read something about the Old Hollywood. I have only watched movies and tv shows about it.

So this was new territory for me. I will admit, it took me about pages to get fully immersed into the story. Up until that point, the book was a 4 star for me. Which is still amazing, but I didn't quite understand the hype till that point. A little after Evelyn divulges her secret love, and basically everything starts, my wig is totally snatched.

The pace was so incredibly fast, there was not a moment I felt my eyes close. The writing was impeccable, some narrations of scenes kept my heart racing. There weren't any redundant descriptions of places or rooms, there were descriptions of faces and clothes which kept me enthralled into to the story. The author did an amazing research, it was obvious that she knew her shit, everything was on point. The story kept me on my toes each time with its smart maneuvers, the schemes, the plans, everything the main characters did, all the choices they made, to dodge unfortunate situations. Everything was just I have nothing bad to say.

This never happens. This book was just too perfect. I want to cry because, if not for the hype, I wouldn't have picked up this book. And I would have lost such an amazing journey, such an important book. Thank you all for loving this book and making me love it too. Evelyn Hugo is the most flawlessly written character I have ever witnessed. No, wrong. She isn't a character to me. She is a person. Every time I would read about a scene from one of the movies, I was like "Oh, I will watch that movie next.

Which made me sad, because all of the content of this book was so interesting. I felt like I was reading an actual autobiography from a real legendary actress. It was incredible. Evelyn is such a good written character, a good written character, not a good person. She is raw, devious, manipulative, scheming, cold-hearted. She is basically a bitch. But you can't help but to want to know everything about her. You want to slap the shit out of her one moment and then hug her the next. She is sensual, enticing, seductive. She always knows what to say to make you believe in her cause. She uses her greatest assets to her benefit, and she isn't ashamed about it.

She doesn't give a fuck. She wants to climb the ladder and she will do anything to achieve her goal. Even marry seven men who will serve her purpose. And she does it. With her scandalous life and her improved acting skills and beneficial movie choices, she climbs to the top. But we also see her sensitive side, her human side. We see her deep friendship with Harry, another remarkable character. We see her love for her child.

We see her devotion to Celia. We see her as a human too, with real emotions. And I find that marvelous. I wish all characters in books had so much depth, so much meaning. And not the John Green kind of pretentious deep meaning. The real one. An underdeveloped character, in my opinion. I didn't care that much about her, but her story was gripping. To be honest, Evelyn didn't let me care a lot about any other character. She took my attention all to herself.

Which is what she did with the entire world. But anyway. An unknown journalist requested to write one of the most popular actresses' biography. A 35 year old woman, who feels like she hasn't achieved much so far in her life. She has a ruined marriage, an under prestigious job, she has been under appreciated all her life, even though she possesses many skills. She is also a POC, and she is mislabeled literally every day. I needed more of her character, I needed to see more of her. But after Evelyn's story started, we didn't get much of her. But I'm so happy that she stood up to herself and her self love grew. That Evelyn showed her the way, and she got out of a meaningless marriage, she made deals regarding her job, her future, she stood on her own two feet.

I'm really proud of her. Suck it all of you who keep saying a historian fiction can't entail good representation. We have two main interracial characters. One bisexual character, one lesbian character and one gay character. And these are just the main character. We also got side representation, from not as important characters in the story. This factor upped the story so much to me. We got to see the struggles that POV and gay people used to face in a time like this. We got to see our main character hide her true lineage to rise at the top of Hollywood.

We got to see two lovers hiding their true sexuality, hiding their undying love for each other because the world would never understand. The conversations between the characters about homophobia of that time period were heartbreaking. I saw so much of our own time in them. So many things have changed since then in our world, and so many have not. We can see the comparisons from these types of books. And it's a reminder of how our society is moving forward of backwards. The representation made this book what it is. If every single character was white and straight, I wouldn't have been as awed by this book as I am now.

And I am myself, a while straight female. Imagine how important representation is for people who can actually relate to it. I would never understand. This book had so many layers. Everything was thought of and processed. Nothing was sloppy, nothing was lacking meaning. Every single word had its reason to be written. I feel privileged to have had the honor of reading this book. It will stick to me for a very long time. I also enjoyed the little snippets we got from the newspapers. They made the setting all the much more real.

The relationships were everything, the friendships, the love stories. Evelyn's life is so engaging and complicated, you can't get enough of it. We truly see how corrupt the Old Hollywood was. And it makes us think about the New Hollywood. Is it still like this? Is everything we see just a fabricated lie? All the lies the characters came up with, seemed to work. I guess, we can never know what happens between closed doors. But I think the New Hollywood is more sincere. It's more about talent, at the most part.

I'd like to hope so. In conclusion, I could rave about this book for days. I have so much to say, I could write a book myself. But I'm gonna end it here. This book was a present sent to me by God himself. I want to read it again and again and again and absorb its wisdom. This book would be such an amazing source material for a movie adaptation. But I'm scared they would ruin it. I'm always scared with book to movie adaptations. We all readers are. Anyway, I couldn't recommend this enough. You won't regret it one bit. So, till the next one K BYE!!! View all 32 comments. View all 5 comments.

Oct 08, Christine Riccio rated it it was amazing. Such a fabulous well crafted story! View all 7 comments. I wanted to devour this whole, yet savor it in tiny pieces so I could linger with these characters whom I grew to admire for their extraordinary strengths and unabashed weaknesses. And I was so desperately in love with this love story. But beneath the guise of fame, Evelyn's story transcends, and its pieces resonate with all of us, as we can all see a bit of ourselves in her struggles and triumphs; love and loss; pains and pleasures.

The mystery entwined in this one is taut and sophisticated as it carries the plot full circle, opening our eyes to all that is harsh and all that is sacred. I laughed, I cried, I enjoyed—and my heart was overflowing with love for all of it. Taylor Jenkins Reid masters the art of storytelling and epitomizes the value of honesty, the significance of life, and the beauty in love of all forms. Her writing is polished and engrossing, sophisticated and sharp, witty, fluid, and I can go on…but most importantly, it has a voice that carries its messages straight into the heart of the reader.

This story stole my breath from its first pages right up until its final line, which was perhaps my favorite line of the novel. Unforgettable cast. Skillful and experienced. Dec 06, David Putnam rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites. I did not expect to love this book as much as I did. This is a story of a powerful love between two women in a time when it was unacceptable. The author has a huge command of language and seamlessly shifts from first person present tense to first person past tense and even to second person.

I marveled at the writing craft, the storytelling. The language and the passion to communicate the love is mesmerizing. The main character Evelyn Hugo is a swirling whirlwin Wow. The main character Evelyn Hugo is a swirling whirlwind that pulls everyone that comes near into her vortex. Even though Evelyn Hugo does some truly heinous things, the justification and motivation is clear and we pull full her. The atmosphere, setting and flavor of old Hollywood is captured in just enough detail. The underlying plotline, the mystery that was carried along and always there lurking really paid off in the end.

In all the thousands of books I have read in my life time I have found very few that have been able to pay-off with the last line of the book. This author does it with stunning panache and verve. Loved it. The third, and last was a Jim and my sisters nicknamed him Jim de jour. Sorry I digress. This one is going up in my top five of the year. Highly recommend this book. David Putnam author of the Bruno Johnson series. View all 52 comments. View all 44 comments. I read Daisy Jones and the Six a couple of months ago. Then, the holds come in when they come in.

In this case I am definitely overwhelmed with Taylor Jenkins Reid goodness! Spoiled, even! I have to say that I find it to be one of the best formats I have come across recently. Reid turns fiction into non-fiction; making it feel like I am standing in line at the supermarket looking at the most recent shocking celebrity news on the cover of Us or seeing the most recent clickbait links on me feed. I am addicted from the very beginning and I cannot wait for the next scandalous event to occur. This book deals with some very sensitive topics: gender roles women being treated differently than men , the historical stigma of homosexuality, sexuality in general i.

I know that some of these topics can trigger people, but I think Reid does a great job of interweaving them into the story and showing how each affects the characters. None of it is unnecessary, overdone, or purely for shock value. Basically, Reid is just a fantastic storyteller. I hope if you try her out, you have the same experiences I did. View all 69 comments. Worst Read of Decade, Glucose Gluttony To paraphrase a quote attributed to Abe Lincoln: " For those who like this kind of a book, it is just about the kind of a book they would like.

I thought that people were put on Earth to find other people, and I was put on Earth to find you. To find you, and touch your skin, and smell your brea Worst Read of Decade, Glucose Gluttony To paraphrase a quote attributed to Abe Lincoln: " For those who like this kind of a book, it is just about the kind of a book they would like. To find you, and touch your skin, and smell your breath, and hear all your thoughts It felt like water in the desert. View all 45 comments. Gwenyth Robicheaux Some people can't tell good writing from bad. They may be the same people who watch certain cable TV channels.

Perry Greg wrote: "Did you actually ready the whole book? I am apparently a masochist! Thank you for asking. Greg wrote: "Did you actually ready the whole book? Jul 16, Caz littlebookowl rated it it was amazing Shelves: favourites , owned , audiobook. The characters are utterly captivating and complex. The audiobook was wonderfully narrated. I am a FAN! The audio was awesome too! May 06, Elyse Walters rated it it was amazing Shelves: recommend , lgbt-themes , favorite , feminism , historical-fiction. Men- women - most readers will love it. By she was in Hollywood. Evelyn is beautiful This enchanting lovely woman was humble - down to earth in areas that mattered. Itching ankles foreshadow a marriage or an imminent increase in wealth.

Leave the other leg extended on the floor. It's extremely common and usually benign. Causes of myofascial trigger points. For in-depth coverage, CNN provides special reports, video, audio, photo galleries, and interactive guides. Sometimes she tells her classes of their responsibility to "gather, grow and give" — meaning learning and building things that are for the benefit of others. How does spiritual or religious beliefs affect one's overall wellness? Religious or spiritual beliefs can lend meaning to one's life and aid in recovery from illnesses, grief and depression.

It can also indicate some problems with an old enemy, or there will be a renewal or increase in the In Chinese astrology, the twitching of the left eye is regarded as auspicious. And that includes pains or accidents related to your hands and fingers. Find the latest breaking news and information on the top stories, weather, business, entertainment, politics, and more. This is the area known as the crown chakra, and it is the main energy center used to connect with the Divine toHypnic jerks are muscle twitches that many people experience as they are falling asleep.

Understanding the spiritual meanings behind physical aches Western medicine takes the position that we feel pain because we can. Your energy field is your private creative universe and is meant to be occupied by your unique Also participating in certain activities that cause you to leave or disassociate from your body e. Recommendations to recover physical, emotional and spiritual health: Flexibility and humility to give in, to accept other points of view, other arguments, other customs. Resentment of authority. Parents who have reversed roles will reverse symptoms in the knees as well. Itchy legs foretell an uncomfortable surprise. The moment he enters the cocoon he has let everything he has ever known be left behind as he embraces the rapture of transcendence and complete re-birth.

The area behind the tip of the tongue relates to the lung. Left Knee You will go on an unpleasant journey. When people are attacked, they often describe it as having periods of peace followed by a sudden barrage of devastating events that left them spiritually, emotionally and physically crippled. Spiritual Meaning Of Underlying Diseases. In, Indian culture Veda's andIs your knee twitching? This involuntary contraction of muscles is generally nothing to worry about. I have been having a lot of muscle twitching, tingling, pins and needle pain, and more fatigue. The H Meridian prevails in the pulse and the blood circulation. The tip of the tongue point is assigned to the heart meridian.

It's very rare that the spiritual realm gets so directly involved in people's daily lives. You may be at your job totally distracted from your work or at a party laughing and dancing when you feel a sudden surge of sadness or emotionality. They can help with issues such as panic attacks, generalized anxiety, and phobias. Learn more about why they happen and their possible triggers here. Meniscus: Used to adapt and cushion. Or the money will come from unexpected ways. If you find yourself frequently feeling "uprooted" and like you need to take charge of everything, then ask yourself why—and try stepping back , surrendering, and noticing what caused this reaction.

Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the smells and stagnation of B. Right Knee You will go on a pleasant journey. Not only are squats a good exercise in and of themselves, they are the foundation for powerful progressions like weighted squatsTease out these common causes of cycling knee pain to keep your hinges healthy and your riding strong. Heavy pain in the knee may speak of something very important and decisive, something that can bring positive changes to your life, but you either deny or miss to perceive it.

Left Ankle You will soon have to spend money. Can also mean luck, depending on the timing. When most people develop knee pain while barbell training, they'll receive a vague diagnosis from the doctor of "Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome" PFPS. Like the spiritual realm, bones are invisible but they make their presence felt. I was walking through thick woods with my head down no doubtIt does not mean that the pairs of medially and finally opposed consonants, that prove their phonemic status, may not be found.

Right arm twitching superstition - Good, expenditure, shopping. Twitching superstition within the Indian left eye is the alternative of the Chinese language model. When it shows up in your life, you may be called to pay attention and experience rapidSharp knee pain when squatting can really put a damper on your workouts. But if it's the right eye, it foretells misfortune. Corner of the Left eye: Opportunities, coming forward. The Throat chakra was simply depleted.

Communication Secrets of the Left Eye - Reaching the Emotional Center of Your Listener Why making correct eye contact must Dear Cosmic Community, After a popular post on my Facebook page this week, about our LEFT EYE being the 'spiritual eye'Deepak: Twitching or other physical movements during meditation are commonplace when the I have had other sensations as well - my head will turn and feel pushed over either my right or left In itself, the sensations don't mean anything. Cancerous tumors are usually metastatic, which means they have spread to the spine from cancer that had formed somewhere else in the body.

Next time your thigh muscle is twitching, move it and see what happens. Arthritis has been around since ancient times. The word fracture means a break in a bone. If you are seated, move the leg back and forth. Nancy Pelosi's seemingly constant gaffes and inexplicably ridiculous behavior as of late has left many wondering what the heck could be wrong with her.

Indeed, this article contains the unkindest of spoilers. In this video I review 7 remedies for the twitching eyelid. See more ideas about spiritual meaning, emotional meaning, spirituality. Most people have had a minor knee problem at one time or another. What an adventure! Itchy Elbow — this one is not nice if you are already married or in a happy and stable relationship; itchy elbow means you will wake up with a strange bedfellow!

Itchy Nose — I get this a lot lately. Is there a meaning behind your twitching eye? Eye twitching myths exist around the world. Age, of course, is not kind to your feet either. Practise giving to charity and this will ensure you haveknee definition: 1. IT band area, which runs along the outside of the leg from the hip to the knee. Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism book. It also affects other athletes—such as hikers and bicyclists—and even people who are sedentary, because their knees are so often in the flexed position.

It brings bad luck and there will be difficulties if a tingling happens in the back side of the head, lower or upper eye lids, left eye, neck, back side of the neck, throat, right chest, naval cavity, left hand, entire back, genitals, right knee, left leg ankle, upper side of the right or left foot. Conflict over no longer being physically able to do something you used to be able to do. Roll up a towel and place it under your right thigh, close to the knee. Squatting is a fundamental movement pattern. Left eye twitchingPredicted thatWomen are talking about you. Columbia, the female figure of America, leads Americans into the West and into the future by carrying the values of republicanism as seen through her Roman garb and progress shown through the inclusion of technological innovations like the telegraph and clearing native peoples and animals, seen being pushed into the darkness.

John Gast, American Progress, After the War of , Americans settled the Great Lakes region rapidly thanks in part to aggressive land sales by the federal government. Farther north, lead and iron ore mining spurred development in Wisconsin. Farther west, the Rocky Mountains loomed as undesirable to all but fur traders, and all Native Americans west of the Mississippi appeared too powerful to allow for white expansion. Go west, before you are fitted for no life but that of the factory. However, the vast West was not empty. Native Americans controlled much of the land east of the Mississippi River and almost all of the West. Expansion hinged on a federal policy of Indian removal. The harassment and dispossession of Native Americans—whether driven by official U.

Of course, a fair bit of racism was part of the equation as well. The political and legal processes of expansion always hinged on the belief that white Americans could best use new lands and opportunities. This belief rested on the idea that only Americans embodied the democratic ideals of yeoman agriculturalism extolled by Thomas Jefferson and expanded under Jacksonian democracy. Florida was an early test case for the Americanization of new lands. The most important factors that led to the annexation of Florida included anxieties over runaway enslaved people, Spanish neglect of the region, and the desired defeat of Native American tribes who controlled large portions of lucrative farm territory.

During the early nineteenth century, Spain wanted to increase productivity in Florida and encouraged migration of mostly southern enslavers. By the second decade of the s, Anglo settlers occupied plantations along the St. Johns River, from the border with Georgia to Lake George a hundred miles upstream. Spain began to lose control as the area quickly became a haven for slave smugglers bringing illicit human cargo into the United States for lucrative sale to Georgia planters. Plantation owners grew apprehensive about the growing numbers of enslaved laborers running to the swamps and Native American-controlled areas of Florida.

American enslavers pressured the U. Southern enslavers refused to quietly accept the continued presence of armed Black men in Florida. During the War of , a ragtag assortment of Georgia enslavers joined by a plethora of armed opportunists raided Spanish and British-owned plantations along the St. Johns River. These private citizens received U. Americans also held that Creek and Seminole people, occupying the area from the Apalachicola River to the wet prairies and hammock islands of central Florida, were dangers in their own right.

These tribes, known to the Americans collectively as Seminoles, migrated into the region over the course of the eighteenth century and established settlements, tilled fields, and tended herds of cattle in the rich floodplains and grasslands that dominated the northern third of the Florida peninsula. Envious eyes looked upon these lands. After bitter conflict that often pitted Americans against a collection of Native Americans and formerly enslaved people, Spain eventually agreed to transfer the territory to the United States.

After the purchase, planters from the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia entered Florida. However, the influx of settlers into the Florida territory was temporarily halted in the mids by the outbreak of the Second Seminole War — Free Black men and women and escaped enslaved laborers also occupied the Seminole district, a situation that deeply troubled enslavers.

This became the template for future action. Presidents, since at least Thomas Jefferson, had long discussed removal, but President Andrew Jackson took the most dramatic action. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in , thereby granting the president authority to begin treaty negotiations that would give Native Americans land in the West in exchange for their lands east of the Mississippi.

Jackson emphasized this paternalism—the belief that the government was acting in the best interest of Native peoples—in his State of the Union Address. The experience of the Cherokee was particularly brutal. Despite many tribal members adopting some Euro-American ways, including intensified agriculture, slaving, and Christianity, state and federal governments pressured the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Cherokee Nations to sign treaties and surrender land. Many of these tribal nations used the law in hopes of protecting their lands. Beginning in , Georgian officials asked the federal government to negotiate with the Cherokee to secure lucrative lands.

Georgia grew impatient with the process of negotiation and abolished existing state agreements with the Cherokee that had guaranteed rights of movement and jurisdiction of tribal law. Andrew Jackson penned a letter soon after taking office that encouraged the Cherokee, among others, to voluntarily relocate to the West. The discovery of gold in Georgia in the fall of further antagonized the situation. The Cherokee appealed to the Supreme Court against Georgia to prevent dispossession. Georgia []. In an associated case, Worcester v. Georgia , the Supreme Court ruled that Georgia laws did not apply within Cherokee territory. Jackson wanted a solution that might preserve peace and his reputation. These negotiations opened a rift within the Cherokee Nation. Cherokee leader John Ridge believed removal was inevitable and pushed for a treaty that would give the best terms.

Others, called nationalists and led by John Ross, refused to consider removal in negotiations. The Jackson administration refused any deal that fell short of large-scale removal of the Cherokee from Georgia, thereby fueling a devastating and violent intratribal battle between the two factions. Eventually tensions grew to the point that several treaty advocates were assassinated by members of the national faction.

In , a portion of the Cherokee Nation led by John Ridge, hoping to prevent further tribal bloodshed, signed the Treaty of New Echota. However, most of the tribe refused to adhere to the terms, viewing the treaty as illegitimately negotiated. In response, John Ross pointed out the U. Adopting your own as our model. You asked us to cultivate the earth, and learn the mechanic arts. We did so. You asked us to learn to read. You asked us to cast away our idols and worship your god. Now you demand we cede to you our lands. That we will not do. Harsh weather, poor planning, and difficult travel compounded the tragedy of what became known as the Trail of Tears.

Sixteen thousand Cherokee embarked on the journey; only ten thousand completed it. Furthermore, tribes responded in a variety of ways. Some tribes violently resisted removal. Ultimately, over sixty-thousand Native Americans were forced west prior to the Civil War. The allure of manifest destiny encouraged expansion regardless of terrain or locale, and Indian removal also took place, to a lesser degree, in northern lands.

In the Old Northwest, Odawa and Ojibwe communities in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota resisted removal as many lived on land north of desirable farming land. Moreover, some Ojibwe and Odawa individuals purchased land independently. They formed successful alliances with missionaries to help advocate against removal, as well as with some traders and merchants who depended on trade with Native peoples.

Despite the disaster of removal, tribal nations slowly rebuilt their cultures and in some cases even achieved prosperity in new territories. Tribal nations blended traditional cultural practices, including common land systems, with western practices including constitutional governments, common school systems, and creating an elite enslaving class. Some Native American groups remained too powerful to remove. Beginning in the late eighteenth century, the Comanche rose to power in the Southern Plains region of what is now the southwestern United States. By quickly adapting to the horse culture first introduced by the Spanish, the Comanche transitioned from a foraging economy into a mixed hunting and pastoral society.

After , the new Mexican nation-state claimed the region as part of the northern Mexican frontier, but they had little control. Instead, the Comanche remained in power and controlled the economy of the Southern Plains. A flexible political structure allowed the Comanche to dominate other Native American groups as well as Mexican and American settlers. In the s, the Comanche launched raids into northern Mexico, ending what had been an unprofitable but peaceful diplomatic relationship with Mexico.

At the same time, they forged new trading relationships with Anglo-American traders in Texas. Throughout this period, the Comanche and several other independent Native groups, particularly the Kiowa, Apache, and Navajo, engaged in thousands of violent encounters with northern Mexicans. Collectively, these encounters comprised an ongoing war during the s and s as tribal nations vied for power and wealth. By the s, Comanche power peaked with an empire that controlled a vast territory in the trans-Mississippi west known as Comancheria. By trading in Texas and raiding in northern Mexico, the Comanche controlled the flow of commodities, including captives, livestock, and trade goods. They practiced a fluid system of captivity and captive trading, rather than a rigid chattel system.

The Comanche used captives for economic exploitation but also adopted captives into kinship networks. This allowed for the assimilation of diverse peoples in the region into the empire. The ongoing conflict in the region had sweeping consequences on both Mexican and American politics. The U. Smithsonian Institute. In the Great Basin region, Mexican independence also escalated patterns of violence. This region, on the periphery of the Spanish empire, was nonetheless integrated in the vast commercial trading network of the West. Mexican officials and Anglo-American traders entered the region with their own imperial designs.

New forms of violence spread into the homelands of the Paiute and Western Shoshone. Traders, settlers, and Mormon religious refugees, aided by U. This expansion of the American state into the Great Basin meant groups such as the Ute, Cheyenne, and Arapahoe had to compete over land, resources, captives, and trade relations with Anglo-Americans. Eventually, white incursion and ongoing wars against Native Americans resulted in traumatic dispossession of land and the struggle for subsistence. The federal government attempted more than relocation of Native Americans. Thomas L. McKenney, superintendent of Indian trade from to and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs from to , served as the main architect of the civilization policy.

He asserted that Native Americans were morally and intellectually equal to whites. He sought to establish a national Indian school system. However, providing schooling for Native Americans under the auspices of the civilization program also allowed the federal government to justify taking more land. After removal in the s, the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw began to collaborate with missionaries to build school systems of their own. Leaders hoped education would help ensuing generations to protect political sovereignty. In , the Cherokee Nation opened a public school system that within two years included eighteen schools. By , the system expanded to twenty-one schools with a national enrollment of 1, pupils.

The dream of creating a democratic utopia in the West ultimately rested on those who picked up their possessions and their families and moved west. Western settlers usually migrated as families and settled along navigable and potable rivers. Settlements often coalesced around local traditions, especially religion, carried from eastern settlements. These shared understandings encouraged a strong sense of cooperation among western settlers that forged communities on the frontier.

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