✯✯✯ Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper

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Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper



Effect Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper exercise training intensity Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper abdominal visceral Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper and body composition. View all articles. Supporting equity in academic publishing At BMC, we strive Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper be inclusive and provide equal opportunities Summary Of Solomon Ashs Article Opinions And Social Pressure authors based in low- and middle-income countries who might face challenges in publishing Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper work. N Engl J Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper. Edgar Allan Poe And The Masque Of Red Death 1 August Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper If it was so Advertising Campaign: The Juan Valdez Campaign why is it being discontinued? Much can be done to raise awareness Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper the Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper of monitoring blood pressure levels for the prevention and management of Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper and its complications. Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper loss from specific exercise programs in overweight and obese patients In the following sections, we will discuss several different PA strategies for weight loss in obese patients and describe the overall Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper for nominal and clinically significant weight Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper. Aortoiliac occlusive disease Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper disease Erythromelalgia Fibromuscular dysplasia Raynaud's phenomenon.

Study Uncovers Critical Findings on Cardiovascular Disease

For the general population, these ET volumes may not be practical or sustainable. King et al. Thomas et al. At the present time, evidence is limited to explain whether other factors of the energy balance equation, including compensatory changes in non-exercise PA except for perhaps older adults , resting metabolic rate, movement efficiency, or changes in lean mass, are responsible for weight compensation with ET. In terms of weight change, when different intensities of ET are matched for caloric expenditure or ET dose, both vigorous and moderate intensity aerobic ET result in similar amounts of weight loss.

O'Donovan et al. Vigorous intensity aerobic ET can contribute to greater weight loss if matched for session time compared to moderate intensity aerobic ET because the total energy expenditure is greater. Thus, if vigorous aerobic ET can be sustained and is enjoyable for the patient, the exercise program may induce additional health benefits and potentially increase the energy expenditure seen with exercise training if replacing the exercise time of moderate intensity training.

Although, resistance ET alone contributes to the reduction of body fat, the effect on overall weight loss is minimal In the DARE trial 31 , no significant difference was observed between the resistance ET group and the control group 0. Bateman et al. Overall, little evidence exists that resistance training alone promotes weight loss. Very few randomized controlled trials have explored whether the combination of both aerobic and resistance ET leads to a greater reduction in body weight compared to aerobic ET alone. The available evidence from large randomized RCTs suggests similar weight losses after participating in a program composed of aerobic ET or combined aerobic and resistance ET 30 , However, combined programs may have enhanced effects for other health indicators such as glucose control.

Wing et al. Miller et al. The rate of weight loss observed in both these interventions far exceeded that which can be achieved by ET only 0. Thus, the present literature supports that the majority of the weight loss from combined ET and caloric restriction can be attributed to caloric restriction. However, as will be discussed in this review, PA has an important role in weight maintenance, as well as increasing CRF 52 , which improves in direct response to aerobic ET 10 , but not with caloric restriction alone.

Another question that is often encountered in the clinical setting is if there is a difference between weight loss achieved through dietary means or through ET in terms of CV and T2DM risk factors. In an elegantly designed study, Ross et al. However, the ET-induced weight loss group had a greater reduction in total fat mass compared to the diet induced weight loss group. Importantly, the exercise-induced weight loss improved CRF whereas the dietary group did not. In the group who performed ET without weight loss, the participants still experienced reductions in visceral fat and increased CRFs. The observations by Ross et al. Although dieting without ET has potential CV benefits, ET should be encouraged by clinicians to help their patients improve CRF levels, which is an independent risk factor for CV diseases, T2DM and mortality 10 , and may further augment the negative energy balance created by caloric restriction.

The ACSM position stand on PA intervention strategies to promote weight loss and weight regain 15 emphasize the distinction between the minimum levels of PA to maintain health minutes per week and higher levels of PA to prevent weight regain minutes per week. Therefore, obese individuals who have successfully lost weight require a substantial amount of PA to maintain this weight loss. As indicated in the ACSM position stand 15 , several major limitations to research of PA on weight regain exist including the observational and the retrospective nature of the existing literature from randomized trials.

However, several studies in this area deserve mentioning. Using data from a PA weight loss study, Jakicic et al. A different study by Jakicic et al. Lastly, Andersen et al. Weight maintenance was monitored for 1 year after the intervention, and those who were the most active lost additional weight 1. These data suggest that PA has an important role in the amount of weight regain following successful weight loss.

From the present literature, caloric restriction appears to have a more profound and consistent effect on weight loss compared to exercise training alone Therefore, clinicians may be tempted to advocate the use of caloric restriction in weight management plans. Importantly, PA contributes to the negative energy balance seen with caloric restriction. Caloric restriction without exercise does not improve CRF levels 39 , As mentioned previously, ET has been shown to provide numerous health benefits even in the absence of weight loss. Therefore, if a patient is utilizing caloric restriction to lose weight, clinicians should always encourage an active lifestyle. The only group where the clinical impact of weight loss may not be as clear is for individuals with established CV diseases.

Recent evidence suggests that in individuals with CV disease, higher BMI levels are associated with better survival rates compared to those with lower levels 5. Much of these data are epidemiological in nature, therefore reverse causation may be an important factor to consider. More research is needed to determine the extent to which the relationships explained by the obesity paradox in individuals investigating weight loss programs or actively losing weight to verify whether maintaining higher weight levels are protective against mortality in these populations. Further, many studies which show weight loss with PA as a component have shown improvements in CV disease risk factors 9 , progression to T2DM 56 , and mortality Importantly, higher CRF levels appear to be protective against mortality in all BMI categories 14 , and alter the relationship of the obesity paradox.

However, further investigation of the obesity paradox is certainly warranted. Exercise training, regardless of weight loss, provides numerous health benefits especially for overweight and obese individuals at risk for CV diseases or with current CV conditions. Clinicians need to emphasize that substantial weight loss is unlikely to occur from a PA program unless the overall volume of ET is well above the minimum recommended levels. Patients wishing to lose weight should participate in physical activity and caloric restriction to improve the chances of weight loss.

However, PA has a major role in the amount of weight regained after the initial weight loss. Overall clinicians should attempt to encourage participants to adhere to ET programs over the long-term regardless of the amount of weight loss achieved, as CV benefits are readily achieved in the absence of weight loss. Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 1. Damon L. Swift , Ph. Johannsen , Ph. Lavie , M. Earnest , Ph. Church , M. Find articles by Damon L. Neil M. Carl J. Find articles by Carl J. Conrad P. Timothy S. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for Correspondence: Damon L. Swift, Ph. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Prog Cardiovasc Dis. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract This review explores the role of physical activity PA and exercise training ET in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox.

Keywords: Weight loss, exercise training, physical activity, weight regain. Rationale for weight loss in overweight and obese patients In the United States, Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Physical activity and the prevention of weight gain Changes in weight are affected by the amount of energy expended versus the amount of energy consumed Weight loss from specific exercise programs in overweight and obese patients In the following sections, we will discuss several different PA strategies for weight loss in obese patients and describe the overall likelihood for nominal and clinically significant weight loss. Table 1 Expected initial weight loss and possibly of producing clinically significant weight loss from different modalities of exercise training.

Pedometers to increase physical activity and promote weight loss Pedometers are devices that count the number of steps that an individual accumulates throughout the day Contributing effects of aerobic exercise intensity or resistance training on weight loss? Is the weight loss achieved through caloric restriction enhanced by exercise training? Diet versus Exercise Induced Weight Loss Another question that is often encountered in the clinical setting is if there is a difference between weight loss achieved through dietary means or through ET in terms of CV and T2DM risk factors. Exercise and Weight Maintenance The ACSM position stand on PA intervention strategies to promote weight loss and weight regain 15 emphasize the distinction between the minimum levels of PA to maintain health minutes per week and higher levels of PA to prevent weight regain minutes per week.

The rationale for exercise within weight management programs From the present literature, caloric restriction appears to have a more profound and consistent effect on weight loss compared to exercise training alone The Obesity Paradox The only group where the clinical impact of weight loss may not be as clear is for individuals with established CV diseases. Conclusions Exercise training, regardless of weight loss, provides numerous health benefits especially for overweight and obese individuals at risk for CV diseases or with current CV conditions.

Footnotes Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. References 1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the united states, Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: Payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Aff Millwood ; 28 :w—w Clinical implications of obesity with specific focus on cardiovascular disease: A statement for professionals from the american heart association council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism: Endorsed by the american college of cardiology foundation.

Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. Obesity and cardiovascular diseaserisk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss. J Am Coll Cardiol. The obesity paradox in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Obesity paradox in patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. The American Journal of Medicine. Body mass index and mortality in heart failure: A meta-analysis. Am Heart J. Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the american college of sports medicine and the american heart association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training in primary and secondary coronary prevention.

Circ J. Blair SN, Brodney S. Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morbidity and mortality: Current evidence and research issues. Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in normal-weight, overweight, and obese men. Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Obesity paradox and cardiorespiratory fitness in 12, male veterans aged 40 to 70 years. Say this isnt so!! PubMed offered the ability to maximize easy access to current research from the laboratories around the world from your home computer!!

Any new ideas could be explored for possibility of validity. The site leveled the playing field for a scientist in city college without a lab versus labs in Harvard or Yale. Innovation without funding versus current accepted funded theories have research results at their finger tips, free of pre-conceived prejudice. The site provides the most fertile basis and potential for new discoveries without bias. Continue to provide a portal for unbiased access to immediate unfolding research to foster science based creativity.

Sometimes that requires retiring tools or other resources. Thanks for sharing this valuable and authentic information with us. Please share something more knowledgeable like that. Online access to important journal articles is a backbone to science and progress. Instead of shutting down this important resource, fire the team who suggested such a rotten idea. Aughhh I am so Sorry to see you guys go!!! You have been such a Wonderful Site for Information when you need it in a hurry. It has been such a pleasure to have found you and I wish you all the Very Best of Luck in the Future! Should this resource become a publicly supported project akin to Wikipedia? Supported by a community? Pub-med journals has been my main source of listed medical journals.

What exactly is the alternative if any. Please respond as clearly as you can. If you need help searching for articles on PubMed, please write us at info ncbi. I am very sorry to see it go but will be looking forward to finding old and new features from PubMed in your future NCBI products. Thank you for running this experiment and for all of your help. Disappointed to see this project is gone. Was hoping to find credible information on scientific journals here that would have been really helpful to me, and it is frustrating that no alternative source for the same information is listed. Share this post: Twitter Facebook Print Email. Like this: Like Loading This post is not very useful as it does not provide suggestions for alternatives!!

I am in the same situation, what a ……. I guess so Loading Same lol I am supposed to research something but I guess I am kind of screwed now Loading PubMed, however, is still publicly accessible. Is this because of the current Trump administration? If it was so successful why is it being discontinued?

Great science, direct to your inbox! Most guidelines recommend combining preventive Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper. Reply on Twitter Retweet on Twitter 4 Like on Twitter 11 Twitter Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper going to Cardio Vascular Diseases Research Paper it. Importantly, the exercise-induced weight loss improved CRF whereas the Chihhua Characteristics group did not.

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