✪✪✪ Boo Radley Monologue

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Boo Radley Monologue



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However, overall, Arthur leaves behind a positive legacy that reflects that despite his shortcomings, he is fundamentally a good man who has been tainted by immoral habits and attitudes. In what ways does Arthur live on? And there you have it! Hopefully, you can see what I meant at the start about rearranging bits of the book. Check it out here. Download a PDF version of this blog for printing or offline use. How to embed quotes in your essay like a boss.

This post will take you through some definitions , give you some examples and show you how you can use them in essays too. A theme is an idea or a subject that an author wants to explore. Themes usually appear in interactions: for example, a parent reuniting with a child might evoke the theme of parenthood or family, an experience of discrimination might evoke the theme of prejudice or racism, a character facing a difficult choice might evoke the theme of morality or conflict, and so on. As you might be able to see, themes can require us to read between the lines because they are usually implied. A motif is something a bit more specific. This repetition of motifs helps to create structure for a text - it can tether parts of the story to or around a central image.

You can think of symbols as motifs minus the repetition. They can simply tell us more about a character or situation in that instant, at that specific time, rather than being a parallel or recurring throughout a text. Themes usually come across in interactions , and a possible first step to identifying them is thinking about if an interaction is good or bad, and why.

For example:. The theme we might identify here is duty. The film might suggest that we have a duty to look out for our neighbours without sacrificing their privacy or to do our part to keep the neighbourhood safe from potential criminals. The themes here might be society, wealth and class. This interaction shows us where these characters really stand with regard to these categories or ideas. Try to identify the themes as you go , or maintain lists of interactions and events for different themes. They also provide a great foundation for essay planning since you can draw on events across the text to explore a certain theme.

While themes can generally appear in texts without the author needing to make too much of an effort, motifs and symbols have to be used really consciously. A lot of interactions might just be natural to the plot, but the author has to take extra care to insert a symbol or motif into the story. Symbols in particular often appear at turning points : the relationship between two characters might take a turn, an important sacrifice might be made or perhaps someone crosses a point of no return - all of these are potential plot points for the author to include symbols.

For motifs , look more for repetition. Symbols and motifs can be more subtle than themes, but they will also help to set your essay apart if you find a way to include them. To learn more about text construction, have a read of What Is Metalanguage? The Complete Maus is a graphic novel that depicts the story of Vladek Spiegelman , a Polish Jewish Holocaust survivor who experienced living in the ghettos and concentration camps during the Nazi regime.

For example, Vladek explains to Art that he was able to exploit his work constantly through undertaking the roles of a translator and a shoemaker in order to access extra food and clothing by being specially treated by the Polish Kapo. Although survival is a key theme, the graphic novel explores how Holocaust survivors in The Complete Maus grapple with their deep psychological scars. Throughout the graphic novel, her depression is apparent. Her ears are additionally drawn as drooped, with her hands positioned as if she was in prison in the context is that she must go to a sanatorium for her depression. He believes he is partly responsible for her death, due to him neglecting their relationship. Spiegelman also conveys to readers his sense of frustration with Vladek where he feels like he is being treated like a child, not as an adult.

Since we're talking about themes, we've broken down a theme-based essay prompt one of five types of essay prompts for you in this video:. The Complete Maus is a graphic novel that may seem daunting to analyse compared to a traditional novel. However, with countless panels throughout the book, you have the freedom to interpret certain visuals so long as you give reasoning and justification, guiding the teacher or examiner on what you think these visuals mean.

Here are some suggested tips:. Spiegelman may have purposely drawn the eyes of the Jewish mice as visible in contrast to the unapparent eyes of the Nazis to humanise and dehumanise characters. By allowing readers to see the eyes of Jewish mice, readers can see the expressions and feelings of the character such as anger and determination. Effectively, we can see them as human characters through their eyes. When the readers see their eyes, they appear sinister , with little slits of light. By analysing the depictions and expressions of characters, readers can deduce how these characters are intended to be seen. Throughout the graphic novel, symbols of the Holocaust appear consistently in the background. Some of the panels in the graphic novel are of different sizes which Spiegelman may have intended to emphasise the significance of certain turning points, crises or feelings.

For example, on page 34, there is a disproportionate panel of Vladek and Anja passing a town, seeing the first signs of the Nazi regime compared to the following panels. All the mice seem curious and concerned, peering at the Nazi flag behind them. This panel is significant as it marks the beginning of a tragic regime that would dominate for the rest of their lives. You should also pay close attention to how some panels have a tendency to overlap with each other which could suggest a link between events, words or feelings. Although not specifically targeted at Text Response, 10 Things to Look for in Cartoons is definitely worth a read for any student studying a graphic novel! Summary 2. What Is Magical Realism? Themes 4. Symbols and Analysis 5.

Quotes 6. Sample Essay Topics 7. Essay Topic Breakdown. Flames is a bit of an out-there story right from the beginning: Levi is attempting to build a coffin for his sister Charlotte because the women in their family come back to life after dying. Neither of them is that close to dying - both are young adults. Some of these perspectives are surprising and unexpected, ranging from a hardcore private investigator to a river god in the form of a water rat, but each of them earns their place in the story.

Our job when studying this text is to follow these shifts in perspectives and make sense of how they contribute to the overall text. Before we get stuck into the text itself, it might be useful to first discuss its genre. The most important element of magical realism is that it blends the real world with fantastical elements. Less obvious examples of fantastical elements include the wombat farm at Melaleuca fortunately nobody actually skins wombats as well as the Oneblood tuna and unfortunately!

The fact that these examples are narrated as perfectly normal is another element of magical realism: the author usually operates as if the fantastical elements are perfectly real. We, as readers, enter a world where the existence of these magical things is taken for granted by the characters. All we know is that in many respects, it looks like our own. Within this familiar setting, Arnott lets his own imagination run wild and leaves the reader to figure out the rest. This helps to create a sense of wonder , as if these elements could be real and as magical as described. These elements also contribute to the story in other ways: in particular, they open up new possibilities for commentary.

A prominent Australian example is Carpentaria by Alexis Wright. Between the three of them, there are three very different expressions of grief. But Edith McAllister is not the only death of significance in the novel. Arnott is thus exploring many processes of grieving, from solitude and callousness to physical and emotional labour. Outside of these moments of grieving, Arnott explores the background relationships between family members as well. Again, Levi and Charlotte are central to this. Consider what difference it makes when Arnott writes in first person from within these relationships as he does with Charlotte versus when he writes in third person , observing from outside.

We also see interesting relationships between Karl and his daughter Nicola. Nicola crops up again under this theme, as she begins to navigate a relationship with Charlotte. In a book review for The Guardian , Sam Jordison argues that this is a bit trite, but we can think of it as one perspective on how relationships begin : organically and sincerely, and out of a desire to protect someone else. With these various beginnings and endings, Arnott shows how it can be natural - or supernatural - to fall in and out of love. Finally, this novel touches on the impacts of colonisation. Arnott also explores colonisation through the eyes of Jack, who experiences racism when taking on the human form of an Aboriginal person.

As immortal outside observers, their perspectives are the only ones in the novel that can really trace this history. Although nature is already alive, these figures help it feel even more so. The one natural element worth discussing as its own symbol is water. There are many bodies of water identified in the novel, from rivers and lakes to the ocean , and they each have their own significance.

For example, rivers connect parts of the natural landscape while lakes particularly Crater Lake represent a getaway, solace, solitude and peace. Arnott canvasses all of these different relationships to nature through the different manifestations of water. The question here is about how magical realism enriches or contributes to the story, so it might be worth breaking down the elements of magical realism and thinking through each of them one-by-one. One magical realism element Arnott adopts is the gods, who play a few roles symbolically in the novel, but there are other elements too: the seals, the flames, the cormorants and so on.

Do these elements add as much as the gods, and if so, what are they adding? Consider also not just the elements as they appear, but also how Arnott is treating them. The fact that a lot of them are taken for granted as perfectly normal is in itself another genre element. Instead of talking about the elements too disparately or separately, I think a lot of them revolve around this central question of how humans relate to the earth and to one another. This will help connect my ideas to one another. Paragraph 1 : Elements of magical realism show how humans adversely impact nature. Paragraph 2 : At the same time, not all humans contribute equally to this pollution, and magical elements also facilitate commentary on this perspective.

The Penelopiad by Margaret Atwood retells the story of the Odyssey by Homer from the perspective of penelope, a half mortal and half divine princess who also happened to be the wife of Odysseus, and her Twelve Maids. A retrospective narrative, Atwood opens her mythological tale with Penelope and the Maids in the afterlife reflecting on the events that occurred centuries before. Told in chronological order from her birth, the Maids serve as a traditional part of greek theatre in their purpose of a Chorus as they make commentary on their life.

Its protagonist, scientist Rosaind Franklin is underappreciated genius working as the only female in her respective field. As one of her photographs uncover the truth of DNA, her subourness and her competitors ambition leads the men around her to success. Both texts explore the use and demonstration of power in its various forms of physical displays of strength to the patriarchal forces that govern each texts respective world. Indeed, the power of men prevailing atop the social hierarchy while displacing those below them is a common theme within both texts. The patriarchal power that men possess within each of the respective texts becomes closely linked to fragile masculinity in their exertion of physical strength or intellectual superiority; Odysseus self-proclaimed superhuman strength is equated to Wilkins need for intellectual dominance, especially over the brilliant Rosalind.

While the men within each text exert their inherent power of supposed supremacy, the women within each world draw are shown to draw on their physical appearance as a source of power or is shown to be disempowered by it. In The Penelopiad , Helens is known for her legendary beauty which she uses to relentlessly taunt Penelope, the proverbial ugly duckling, through which Atwood demonstrates how, like other forms of power, can be used to oppress others. Conversely, Photograph 51 examines how Rosalind is disempowered by her perceived lack of traditional physical beauty.

Many of the men around her using her unflattering appearance to ridicule and minimise her and her work. While the time periods in which the two texts are set may greatly differ, the notion of identity is still a prevailing theme that is explored. Indeed, the role others perceptions play in each character's construction of their own self-worth and values provides both authors a basis for the examination of how societies enforce conformity while punishing uniqueness.

Not only do others perceptions shape one's personality, but the expectations enforced by Society. Both Ziegler and Atwood suggest that in order to overcome the pressures and external expectations of society each which of these women must have a positive and strong sense of self. In the case of Photograph 51, Rosalind must adopt a strong self-belief in her work in order to survive the hostile masculine environment around her.

By contrast, Odysseus constantly boasts and exaggerates his stories of heroism and the cleverness of his actions. The feminine figure and roles are depicted in contrasting ways between the texts, but both show how the construction of characters who either adhere to or reject the social constructs of femininity during their era are forced to grapple with the harsh realities of being a woman in both ancient and modern times.

One of the biggest examples of femininity shown within each text is the value the patriarchal system places on motherhood and the high expectations they have for mothers and mother figures. Eurycleia is presented as benevolent and dedicated to the mother figure ideal as she is shown to snatch Penelope's newborn son and invision him as her own. In contrast, Penelope's mother an elusive and neglectful Naiad leaves her child to swim around unsupervised. In Photograph 51 mothers are depicted as primarily concerned with the needs of their children and husbands as they are shown to identify themselves with their attributes and successes. It can be seen that such characters as Goslings mother's interest in his PhD suggests that like Penelope she judge's her own worth by her child's success.

Indeed, while these mothers are shown to be nurturing and caring most of it emphasises their need to control and guide their child's life. Not only mothers, but wives become another primary source of femininity that is examined within both texts. Regardless of class and social standing every woman on some level is shown to be oppressed by this traditional and conventional idea of womanhood.

Penelope is encouraged to be a doting wife to her husband Odysseus, while in contrast, the Maids remain unmarried yet still subjects of oppressive mistreatment. Unlike the The Penelopiad, wives have little to no significance within Photograph 51, a text heavily focused on the scientific discovery of DNA, Indeed, the woman or the wife is seen as irrelevant in the scientific field while any mention of women outside of Rosalind is confined to the wives of men contained within the domestic sphere. The notion of storytelling and the power of narrative becomes closely linked to such ideas as femininity and womanhood within each text as each closely revolves around women taking back control of their own narratives and stories.

The The Penelopiad is a story about other stories as it is based off retelling an already famous story. The Odyssey becomes a vessel for Penelope to share her own insights and feelings while her actions of retelling the well known work is a source of empowerment for her as she is able to negate stories about herself that she would prefer not to hear. This frees her from the burden of being a legend or a myth as she urges women not to follow her example of keeping their mouths shut. In contrast, Rosalind Franklin does speak out initially but gained an unfortunate reputation as a difficult woman in stories about her that are circulated by men.

Through this it can be said that the aims of both Ziegler and Attwood is to challenge the historical invisibility of women throughout time. While Ziegler's play attempts to highlight the ways in which stories told by men have worked to minimise or downplay the roles and contributions of women, The Penelopiad attempts to offer new perspective of already well known stories that intend to give insight into the woman's understanding of life. While the DNA double helix structure is common knowledge now, in the s many scientists were racing to claim its discovery. Ziegler's title, Photograph 51 is simply named after the X-ray photograph taken of the hydrated B form of DNA, which was crucial in the consequent events that eventually led to the identification of DNA's structure.

However, much controversy has surrounded exactly who deserves credit for the discovery, particularly because the Nobel Prize was awarded to James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins - 3 people who did not actually take Photograph 51 itself. Instead, people have argued that Rosalind Franklin should have been one to be award the prize, or at least share the prize as it was her work that led to Photograph 51 and without it, Watson, Crick and Wilkins may not have discovered the DNA structure. If Watson and Crick had not seen Photograph 51 , would they have gone on to discover the structure of DNA on their own? The Penelopiad is similar to Photograph 51 in that it is written from a women's perspective previously never explored in literature.

Misogyny is widespread in both Photograph 51 and The Penelopiad, and both writers explore the ways in which females deal with such an environment. Penelope is more graceful in her response, as she is acceptance of her place as a women, as poignantly expressed: "I kept my mouth shut; or, if I opened it, I sang [Odysseus] praises. In The Penelopiad, even Telemachus shows a lack of understanding and empathy for his own mother, and wants her to find a Suitor quickly because she is "responsible for the fact that his inheritance was being literally gobbled up.

Like Telemachus, the men in Photograph 51 has NO sense of what it means to be a woman. They is frustratingly presumptuous in the female psyche, as seen when Crick boasts: "See, women expect men to fall upon them like unrestrained beasts. Her fellow male scientists dismiss her credentials. Moreover, her methodical approach to her work drives the frustrated Wilkins to share her confidential research to Crick and Watson, displaying males inherent distrust and disrespect of women.

At Year 12 level, and particularly in Reading and Comparing, your assessor expects you to not only understand the text itself, but to understand the real-life implications explored. So when you start comparing Photograph 51 and The Penelopiad think about the human condition. Why is the way she deals with misogyny so different to that of Penelope? Now if we zoom out and look at the bigger picture, you need to start asking yourself: What do these texts say about us as people?

What can we learn from these stories? This is particularly important when it comes to essay writing, because you want to know that you're coming up with unique comparative points compared to the rest of the Victorian cohort! I don't discuss this strategy in detail here, but if you're interested, check out my How To Write A Killer Comparative. I use this strategy throughout my discussion of themes above and in the next section, Essay Topic Breakdown. While Rosalind and Penelope are examples of strong female characters, they are both severely flawed. What structural elements help convey the strength of women within The Penelopiad and Photograph 51?

We were dirty. Dirt was our concern, dirt was our business, dirt was our specialty, dirt was our fault. We were the dirty girls. Make sure you watch the video below for extra tips and advice on how to break down this essay prompt! Compare the Pair- A guide to structuring a reading and comparing essay. The link between your contention and topic sentences in relation to the prompt. Master Reading and Creating. Reading and Comparing Essays. Happy learning! Hey guys. Welcome back to Lisa's Study Guides.

Right now, it's in the middle of December, and I know that most of you should have finished school by now, and you're enjoying your school holidays. Because it is summer holidays, and most people aren't really studying right now, this is for the truly keen beans, the people who are reading the text before the school starts, which, by the way, you should be doing. I'll pop that video in a card up above and so if you are studying Burial Rites, then this video is for you. If you're not, as always, it doesn't really matter because the type of advice that I will be giving would definitely be relevant to any text, because it's more about your thinking and how you actually go around approaching essay topics.

This book covers the last few months of her life, living with these people who she's sharing her story with. She has been sentenced because she has murdered Natan. And although we first initially hear that she has murdered this guy, when we start to hear her story develop, that's when we start to see that there are shades of gray. That she did have reason behind what she did, and you can start to feel quite sympathetic towards her. At the same time, though, and this is what today's essay question will be about. There's a lot to do with the patriarchy. Agnes being not just a woman, but an intelligent woman, was something that was looked down upon, and people were scared of that.

That's just to give you a little bit of context so that we can start this essay topic. What are the keywords here? To me, they are women, no power, patriarchy and dominates. What has become of Lena? Tiny had made a fortune with the Alaskan Gold Rush, but she seemed to be a cold person now. What does Jim learn happened to Antonia? He used Antonia for her dowry from Ambrosch and then left her. How does Antonia react when she sees Jim?

Where do they go to talk? They go to talk by Mr. What career path has Jim chosen? Jim promises to return, but what does Antonia say if he does not return? Lesson 76 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: adjourn , astute , censure Reading Read Book V Chapters Use page 17 as a guide to draft a Response to Literature for the novel. Lesson 77 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Read about F. Scott Fitzgerald. Read about The Great Gatsby Read the themes and symbols. Lesson 78 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: confirm , demolish , digress Take this vocabulary midterm test.

This is not on your grading sheet. The score is saved on your browser. Please contact us if you see a mistake. Take notes where you answer the following questions: How does the story define identity and aging? Do you think those definitions are still relevant today? How does the author use the concept of beauty? In what ways would you call the story a social satire? Is this story funny, tragic, or both? Lesson 79 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes.

Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: dissent , equitable , exonerate Reading Read about Ernest Hemingway. Read about A Farewell to Arms. Lesson 80 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: extemporaneous , extricate , forfeit Reading Read about Ezra Pound. What is his major contribution to this literary period? How does this piece reflect a common Modernism theme of alienation and isolation? Look at how the author uses time sequence and tone.

Lesson 81 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: fragile , galore , genuine Reading Read about Robert Frost. Lesson 82 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: hostile , illegible , impatient Reading Read about Susan Glaspell. What do the men focus on as they look through the house? What do you think Glaspell is trying to say by including this? As the play goes on, the women acknowledge that Minnie was treated unfairly by her husband.

The men see her as unable to take care of her home. The women see that she was treated unfairly and may have been in the middle of tasks when she was provoked to act by the murder of her beloved canary. What items take on symbolic importance in the play? Take notes on what the symbolism says to you. What are your thoughts on it? Lesson 83 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: inadvertently , inappropriate , inter Reading Read about The Harlem Renaissance.

Read about Langston Hughes. Do you agree or disagree? What is the racial mountain he refers to? Lesson 84 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: lucrative , mitigate , novice Reading Read about W. Du Bois. What similes are found in the first and second stanzas? What ideas are they used to support? The poet uses some visual imagery in the third stanza.

What is that imagery? What is the warning along with it? What is being contrasted in the last two stanzas? Why might the author have used the associated images that he does? Do you agree with the argument that the speaker makes? Why or why not? Is the message relevant today? Lesson 85 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: original , permanent , prohibit Reading Read The Depression in the United States — An Overview.

Read about John Steinbeck. Read about The Grapes of Wrath. Read about Of Mice and Men. Lesson 86 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: punctual , rarity , rebuke Reading Read about American Literature and the Southern Renaissance. Read about William Faulkner. Lesson 87 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: suffice , transient , vacant Reading Read about Katherine Porter.

How does the author use structure and elements of time chronological and psychological to tell the story? Review the definition of stream of consciousness. Lesson 88 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: cache , calamity , commend Reading Read about Zora Neale Hurston. Lesson 89 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: congregate , convene , cordiality Reading Read about Richard Wright.

Note: Native Son is a famous and controversial novel written by Richard Wright. We will not be reading the novel, but it is important to know about this novel as you may be preparing for the CLEP or similar tests. Read about Native Son. Complete it. Record your Exam grade out of Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: despotic , dispense , dubious Reading Read The realist legacy and the late s Read about Postmodernism. What are the major differences you see between the Postmodern era and the eras we have most recently studied?

The Essay will be pages in length and will be a research paper focused on a debatable issue. Essays should use a rational discussion of your chosen position. It should serve to educate your readers, but also attempt to persuade them with a call to action. Read about Argumentative Essays. You will be using this Persuasive Research Essay Rubric where each section has a maximum score of 10 points. Read the traits portion and determine how close to fulfilling that the assignment came. Score each section out of 10 points for a total of 50 points possible. The steps of your assignment should include the following: Choose your topic and create a formal proposal for your argument.

Come up with a working thesis and a preliminary bibliography. Create a formal complete sentence outline. Write a rough draft with a works cited page. Write a final draft in MLA format with works cited. Lesson 92 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Read about Arthur Miller. Read about Death of A Salesman. People were falsely accused of practicing witchcraft, with the accusers having various motives and justifications for the accusations. The topic for your essay should be narrowed down to a specific argument. Your topic should be supported with outside sources, statistics, etc. You will need to be able to find enough evidence to give support to your idea and be able to defend your argument against other views.

Choose something that challenges you and interests you, but be sure there is enough information available to write an effective paper on the topic. What kind of facts, evidence and logic will you be able to find in your research? Lesson 93 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: distinguish , divulge , facetious Reading Read about Ralph Ellison. Read through these argumentative writing topic ideas and choose what you would like to use for your Persuasive Research Essay or come up with your own idea.

Lesson 94 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: infallible , inundate , pilfer Reading Read about Saul Bellow. Read about The Adventures of Augie March. Writing Read about Logic in Argumentative Writing. Your essay proposal should offer a quick overview of your topic, what you currently know about your topic, some claims you believe the opposing side would make, and what your response to those objections would be. The proposal is just to get you started. You should expect things will change a bit as you move forward with your assignment.

The proposal is a great way to begin organizing what you already know about your topic and what direction your research will probably need to take. Name your proposal paper at the top center of your page Persuasive Research Essay Proposal. Each section of your proposal paper should begin with a header in bold. Write one sentence where you state your initial claim about your topic. This is something that you intend to prove with research. Your next header will be titled Explanation. The explanation should be a paragraph discussing what you plan to accomplish with your paper and how you plan to accomplish your goal. The next header is Main Points. Write points discussing examples of support for your argument. Make your next header Objections.

This can just be a brief sentence that states a problem with your argument. What would the opposing viewpoint say is wrong with your argument? You need to be sure that your claim is something that can be argued against? Your final section of the proposal should be your Answer to the Objection. This is a brief explanation of how you expect to reply to the objection problems with your claim.

Lesson 95 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Lesson 96 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: abate , belligerent , conspicuous Reading Read about Lorraine Hansberry. Read about A Raisin in the Sun. Read about its themes and symbols. When I was in high school we read this play and also watched the movie version of it. If you are able to, I think you should check it out. Lesson 97 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes.

Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: deter , diminutive , dispel Reading Some writers from were considered in the Beat Generation or the Beat Movement. Read about the Beats. Read about Jack Kerouac. Jack Kerouac wrote a famous novel called On the Road. This book deals with substance abuse, excessive drinking, and having multiple relationships.

Sadly, Kerouac died of liver disease that was a consequence of his years of drinking heavily. Lesson 98 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: adroit , affluent , apprehensive , bildungsroman Reading We are going to be reading the novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee. You will need to have a copy of this book to read as it is not available for free online due to an open copyright. You can find a copy at your local library or purchase a copy for an eReader like Kindle. Parents should be aware that this book deals with a suspected violent crime, sexual abuse, and racism.

It contains some rough language. Terms are used to describe African Americans that are never okay to use. Download this study guide for the novel. We will not be using all of the study guide. Read pages of the study guide pages of the PDF. What do you learn in this chapter about Maycomb? What do you learn about Atticus Finch and his family? Why are Scout, Jem, and Dill so interested in the Radley place?

Lesson 99 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: aptitude , audacity , avarice Reading Read Chapter 2 of To Kill A Mockingbird. How are the social differences of the students at school exposed? What do you think of Miss Caroline Fisher as a teacher? Writing Have you decided on your essay topic and created your formal proposal? Share it with your parent or a responsible adult and ask for feedback on your ideas. Lesson Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: dauntless , destitute , dexterity Reading Read Chapter 3 of To Kill A Mockingbird.

Think about the interaction between Walter Cunningham and Atticus. What does this interaction reveal about each of these characters? What about the different ways Jem and Scout treat Walter? What does this reveal about the differences between Jem and Scout? What does this mean? Is this an easy thing for Scout to learn? Has this been an easy thing for you to learn?

What do you learn in this chapter about the Ewell family? Writing If your Persuasive Research topic was in the form of a question, your thesis statement is your answer to that question. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: fortitude , indomitable , lavish Reading Read Chapter 4 of To Kill A Mockingbird. How does Scout feel about school? What characteristics of the children do you learn about through the Boo Radley game? Who do you think is putting the gum and pennies in the tree? Do you think this is revealing something about their character? Who do you think is laughing when Scout bumped into the Radley house with the tire?

Writing You should be gathering sources to develop a preliminary annotated bibliography for your essay. Some sources you will keep. Some you will later find are not useful and they will be removed from your final bibliography. Read Research: Where do I begin? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: maladroit , trepidation , versatile Reading Read Chapter 5 of To Kill A Mockingbird. Describe Miss Maudie Atkinson. What do you think is her purpose in the novel? Why does Atticus tell the children not to play the Boo Radley game?

Keep in mind that your paper should be written in MLA format. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: accede , accord , altercation Reading Read Chapter 6 of To Kill A Mockingbird. What does Nathan Radley know about the intruders in his garden? What does he say he will do to them? What is Jem afraid of? Why does he insist on recovering his pants? What does this show about Jem as a character?

Writing Read about Annotated Bibliographies and begin putting your preliminary bibliography together. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: antagonize , apprise , avowal Reading Read Chapter 7 of To Kill A Mockingbird. What was interesting about how Jem found his pants? How is Jem changing his views on Boo Radley and the gifts in the tree?

What happened to the hole in the tree? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: clandestine , discord , discrepancy Reading Read Chapter 8 of To Kill A Mockingbird. Why does Scout want to ask Atticus about his visit to the Radley home? How does Miss Maudie feel about the destruction of her house? What does this tell you about her character and values? Describe the significance of the blanket in this chapter. Writing Have you been able to come up with a working thesis and preliminary bibliography for your paper? Share where you are at with your parent or a responsible adult and ask for feedback on your ideas.

Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: embroil , enigmatic , estrange Reading Read Chapter 9 of To Kill A Mockingbird. What major theme of the novel does this seem to reference? Read the last sentence of this chapter. What do you think this means? Why might this be important in this story? Writing The next step in your paper is to create a Complete Sentence Outline. Read about How to Outline. Read about Creating an Argument Outline.

Alternate link. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: irreconcilable , latent , litigation Reading Read Chapter 10 of To Kill A Mockingbird. What reason does he give for saying this? How might this idea become a theme in the novel? Describe the situation with the mad dog. Why does Jem cut off the tops of Mrs. Atticus tells his children why he believes Mrs. Dubose is a brave and good person. What might be a symbolic connection here with why he is defending Tom Robinson? She had her own views about things. Writing Have you finished your Complete Sentence outline? Share what you have with your parent or a responsible adult and ask for feedback on your ideas. If you have not begun it already, you should begin working on your rough draft with a works cited page.

Remember that your final paper is due on Day Give yourself enough time to work through your rough draft and compare it to the rubric to determine any necessary changes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: bulwark , cogent , commodious Reading Read the Background information on page 14 of the study guide. How has Jem changed? How does this change his relationship with Scout? Dicuss Lula, Reverend Sykes, and Zeebo. What do these characters say about African American society in the story? Why does Calpurnia switch her dialect? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: decrepit , dilapidated , enervate Reading Read Chapter 13 of To Kill A Mockingbird. Aunt Alexandra comes to stay with the Finch family.

What is she like? What does she contribute to the family? At the end of the chapter what is Atticus trying to tell his children? Why does he stop? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: formidable , gamut , impregnable Reading Read Chapter 14 of To Kill A Mockingbird. What happens? Jem and Scout are changing their perceptions of things. Explain how?

Why does Alexandra think Atticus should fire Calpurnia? Why does Dill run away? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: inadvertent , incapacitate , infinitesimal Reading Read Chapter 15 of To Kill A Mockingbird. How is this related to a theme in the novel? What does Mr. Underwood do and why is it unusual? How is Scout causing changes in things?

What does she do for Walter Cunningham? Your rough draft for your essay should be completed. Compare it to the Persuasive Research Essay Rubric to see how you are doing. Make any necessary changes. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: infirmity , inordinate , iota Reading Read Chapter 16 of To Kill A Mockingbird. Who is Dolphus Raymond? Why does the author use this? What is Judge Taylor like? Describe his attitude about the case. Writing Read about Beginning Proofreading.

Read about Finding Common Errors. Read about Suggestions for Proofreading for Errors. Use these ideas to make final proofreading efforts for your rough draft. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: meticulous , picayune , pittance Reading Read Chapter 17 of T o Kill A Mockingbird. What evidence does Atticus use in his cross-examination? What do we learn about the Ewell family?

Why does Atticus ask Bob Ewell to write out his name? Writing Begin your final draft making sure you are staying in MLA format with works cited. Your final draft is due on Day Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: remiss , scrupulous , scrutinize Reading Read Chapter 18 of To Kill A Mockingbird. What do you think of Mayella as a character? How does he do this? Does it reveal anything about her character? What does Scout notice when Mayella identifies Tom Robinson? How is this significant? What do we learn about Atticus as a lawyer with this? What does Mayella reveal about herself with her final words? Why does she say what she does? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: slovenly , solicitude , tenacious Reading Read Chapter 19 of To Kill A Mockingbird.

What does his testimony expose about Bob Ewell? What social mistake does Tom make? Why does Scout think Mayella is lonely? Describe the contrast between how Mr. Gilmer treats Tom and how Atticus treats Mayella in Chapter Why does Dill became sick? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: vehement , vigilance , wary Reading Read Chapter 20 of To Kill A Mockingbird. What do we find out about Dolphus Raymond?

What does this show the reader about Maycomb? What does Jem think will happen with the trial verdict? What does this reveal about Jem? What are some important points? And why? What does the crowd do as Atticus leaves the courtroom? Writing Your Persuasive Research Essay is due. Use this Persuasive Research Essay Rubric and record the grade. Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: defer , denizen , docile Reading Read the Background information on page 18 of the study guide page 13 of the PDF.

Why do people bring food to the Finch home? How do the children Scout, Jem, and Dill react after the trial? Can you connect this to a theme? What purpose do Miss Stephanie and Aunt Rachel serve as characters? What does Miss Stephanie reveal at the end of the chapter? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: domicile , entail , imminent Reading Read Chapter 23 of To Kill A Mockingbird. How do the children react to it? Why is this ironic? How does Jem interpret the way Maycomb operates in a caste system? Does this show something is happening to Jem?

How does Scout respond? What does this reveal about Scout? Why does Jem say Boo wants to stay indoors? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: imperative , incipient , incumbent Reading Read Chapter 24 of To Kill A Mockingbird. How do they view other cultures? Are they genuine in their feelings or hypocritical? Describe Grace Merriweather and Mrs. Why did Tom Robinson run? What happened to him? Aunt Alexandra politely returns to her missionary circle even after they insulted her brother. What lesson does Scout learn from her? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: indispensable , infraction , insubordinate Reading Read Chapter 25 of To Kill A Mockingbird.

How does this relate to a theme of the novel? Why is this significant? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: insurgent , insurrection , intermittent Reading Read Chapter 26 of To Kill A Mockingbird. Gates discusses Hitler with the class. What does she say about prejudice? How does this affect Scout? Click on each term and summarize its definition so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: malcontent , meek , oblige Reading Read Chapter 27 of To Kill A Mockingbird. Three strange things happen in Maycomb. Wilder was committed to plumbing the depths but not to leaving his protagonists in the muck. His most influential film, the multi-Oscar-winning The Apartment, is the one that played it both ways.

But in the end he turns out to be a lovable little man who loses his job but recovers his soul. His second collaboration with Diamond was the cross-dressing classic Some Like It Hot, one of the greatest of all American slapstick farces. In his best films, every beat, every syllable clicks into place. The repartee in Double Indemnity seems distilled to pure erotic gamesmanship. Though their projects range from pitch-black No Country for Old Men to zany The Hudsucker Proxy , they all share a certain detached humor and a knack for skewering human weakness. Weber and Scott Neustadter. The Coens prove that comedy is tragedy plus time. Towne also put Bonnie and Clyde in the right order — another anonymous job — and then, ironically, spent years fighting for control over the scripts he did write.

I was thrilled! From script to screen, all of his pictures are, on some level, movies about movies — whether that comes in the form of passionate homages to genres and past flicks, or as is true in the aforementioned Basterds meditations on the literal power of celluloid. The Conversation. The Godfather Part II. Apocalypse Now. A film like The Conversation, which dissects the basic cinematic act of observation in a way that still feels mind-altering, is the epitome of screenwriting.

And, to top it off, he literally wrote the book on Hollywood screenwriting — and then wrote it again. The screenwriter behind Being John Malkovich and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind populates his high-concept, surrealist stories with uncanny-valley versions of ordinary people, and pushes them into unexpectedly emotional terrain. Kaufman opened up the possibilities for what a Hollywood film could do, making himself and his imaginary twin brother the heroes of Adaptation and, in the marvelous Synecdoche, New York his directorial debut , crafting an epic about a man who turns his life into an all-consuming art project.

He bakes existential crisis into his scripts at the thematic and structural level. Not that he reads them: Allen has always been about the work, and the work is ongoing. Do you like Annie Hall best? Or Manhattan? Or the earlier, funnier stuff? Smarter, funnier, and a little bit naughtier than women of her generation were usually allowed to be, she was the contemporary embodiment of the Algonquin roundtable. Name a scribbler of his era who demonstrated such diverse range as he did, adroitly scripting musicals West Side Story, The Sound of Music, Hello, Dolly! As comfortable with pathos as he was with humor, fluent in tough-guy-ese and rosy sentimentality alike, Lehman is the very definition of midcentury film writing. Characters experience anguish gloriously in a Paul Schrader screenplay.

That quintessential anti-hero drama inspired everything from Unforgiven to Nightcrawler , and ever since, Schrader has continued exploring themes of disillusionment and toxic masculinity in films as varied as Raging Bull and The Mosquito Coast. If Stone had decided to just stay a screenwriter and never directed a film, he could always look back at his fantastic run from to , in which the NYU grad — who enrolled three years after fighting in Vietnam to discover Martin Scorsese was his film teacher — wrote Scarface, Conan the Barbarian, Year of the Dragon, and Midnight Express for which he won a Best Adapted Screenplay Oscar. For most scripts , the rule of thumb is one page accounts for one minute of screen time.

But Sorkin is bound by no such laws and has lately been known to pack Moneyball , The Social Network , and even pages Steve Jobs of blazingly paced ping-pong dialogue into tidy two-hour running times. The same way all idealistic politicians start out wanting to be JFK, all idealistic writers start out wanting to be Paddy Chayefsky. His work inspired countless good-hearted liberals to pick up a typewriter and try to write the next Great American Script; only a few, including Aaron Sorkin and David Simon, even came close.

It also examined the fragile, human cost of that society gone off the rails. Few filmmakers and screenwriters have done more to change their industry, simply by never compromising. For proof, look no further than the career of George Lucas, for whom human speech has served as an occasional stumbling block. In marrying the aesthetics of the pulp serials of his youth to formal lessons gleaned from Joseph Campbell, he quite literally created the template for plus years of blockbusters.

Once he became a director, however, he helped transform the industry. But his real achievement lies not in the barriers he broke or the credits he accrued. It lies in the fact that he wrote brilliant, hilarious, savage portraits of American life, with no institution or sacrament escaping his devastating wit and irony. Has any comedy writer ever been able to match him? Could have been written yesterday. In masterpieces like A Space Odyssey and Barry Lyndon , this meticulous artist sought to preserve the spirit of the source material without being enslaved by it. What could be a greater act of love than to put your heart and soul into translating the power of the written word onto the grand canvas of a movie screen?

He was peerless. He began as Altman-PTA, who assembled gargantuan ensemble pieces about interconnectedness and salvation such as Boogie Nights and Magnolia. Binding these two halves together is a persisting fascination with how lost people find their way in the world, whether through the makeshift families of his early work or the restless existential searching of his later films.

Formerly a comedy writer for Mel Brooks — as well as an anarchic comedian who helped create Get Smart — Henry was the rare writer celebrity, and his frequent television appearances were as dry and droll as his scripts. If he had retired in , after his first two produced screenplays, Lawrence Kasdan would still be a legend in Hollywood, thanks to two little movies called The Empire Strikes Back and Raiders of the Lost Ark.

Before then, Kasdan was mainly known as a young writer who had sold an unproduced film called The Bodyguard , which finally got made in and also became a huge hit. Is it hard to reconcile these two strains in his work? I am so glad to see him working again; his voice has been missed. On the one hand, Joseph L. Mankiewicz had such a prolific and varied career as a pen-for-hire that the common tendency to boil his body of work down to his greatest triumph, All About Eve , is unfair.

On the other hand, have you seen All About Eve? From there, he made one of the best-ever workplace romantic comedies, Broadcast News , giving moviegoers an ensemble of complicated, painfully relatable characters constantly foiled by their career and personal aspirations. Gordon Kumail Nanjiani. There are no bad guys. There are no good guys. There are smart grown-up people just doing their best. For a genre as quintessentially American as the Western, few writers, let alone foreigners, had as much of an impact on its evolution as Akira Kurosawa even Sergio Leone came to the genre via Kurosawa, with A Fist Full of Dollars, his spaghetti Western take on Yojimbo.

Kurosawa was criticized as his popularity grew for pandering too much to Western mainstream audiences, but in doing so, he created the mold for crowd-pleasing, larger-than-life mythmaking that resonates with audiences no matter their language or nationality. But Ruth Prawer Jhabvala made it seem so effortless with her masterful interpretations of more than a dozen critically acclaimed novels, including E. Bridge , to name only a few. Mamet came to movies from the stage, but his scripts never feel like chamber pieces. Dominance is a particular obsession. His best movies are full of con artists, magicians, and poker players: men and women who establish mastery over others using only words and gesture.

The Manhattan native spent years in obscurity as he tried to bring a Civil War musical to Broadway, supporting his family with the odd TV-writing job. Finally, when he was 42, it was the movies that gave Goldman his big break. This degenerate horse player of a man lived his life like he lived his politics, never shying from a fight. Long Duk Dong aside. Hughes always managed to stay in touch with his inner child, and because of that and his insane productivity, his heartfelt comedy across multiple genres — teen, kids adventure, family comedy and buddy comedy — defined an entire era, and an entire generation of aspiring writers.

A more morose — but just as whip-smart — Aaron Sorkin with whom he wrote Moneyball , Zaillian makes bona fide movies for grown-ups, respecting their intelligence but also knowing how to craft a compelling scene. Zaillian is one of the masters. We owe a lot to James Cameron, in ways both good and bad. Cameron definitely speaks fluent badass — he understands the mannerisms and mentality of tough guys, both the gung-ho and stoic kind. Cameron exploded in the s, and it could be said that he married the militarism of the Reagan era with the soft-focus, New Age ethos of the times.

In so doing, he set the standards for what Hollywood expects from an action film. Terminator is a perfect screenplay. Aliens is even better. In her first produced script, Callie Khouri broke a cardinal rule: she wrote a Western with female protagonists. We all owe her a huge debt. Long before he made a film called Nebraska, Alexander Payne was rivaled only by the Coens as a certain voice of middle-American satire. Citizen Ruth , his debut, original script in with frequent co-writer Jim Taylor , was a poison-laced morality play starring a go-for-broke Laura Dern caught in the middle of a small-town abortion debate. Though About Schmidt and Sideways also both adaptations earned him more acclaim — to this day, who dares to order a glass of Merlot?

From his start writing sketches through The Producers and his streak of satires — including Blazing Saddles , Young Frankenstein , Spaceballs , and Robin Hood: Men in Tights — Brooks had a way of knocking the air out of whatever seemed serious and filling it with a hardy ladling of borscht. He took down racists, deviants, believers and nonbelievers, villains and heroes, too. His satire was shocking, relentless, and no one was spared. He pulled it off because he saved his sharpest arrows for secular Jews, entertainers, and dreamers.

He went after himself. We go for capital-F feelings, simple truths about love, and some of the most endearingly eccentric characters ever put to screen. I hate him for that. If Woody Allen is the master of wringing comedy from neuroses, then Albert Brooks is our poet laureate of self-regard. Along the way, he also proved startlingly prescient.

Themes 4. A live-action, eye-popping cartoon. Scientists make discoveries over lunch. He Cultural Diversity In The United States to kill her, but Boo Radley Monologue, sets up a chain of events. Boo Radley Monologue a film Boo Radley Monologue gets more relevant with every passing year. It also Boo Radley Monologue that he Boo Radley Monologue empathetic, Boo Radley Monologue is a great quality Boo Radley Monologue see in Boo Radley Monologue doctor, because he seems Boo Radley Monologue suffer as well when his patients are suffering.

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