⚡ Self Destructive Vs Informal Structure

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Self Destructive Vs Informal Structure

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Until the early 20th century, U. According to Schiebinger, "Being a scientist and a wife and a mother is a burden in society that expects women more often than men to put family ahead of career. Movements advocate equality of opportunity for both sexes and equal rights irrespective of gender. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement , in recent decades women in many societies have gained access to careers beyond the traditional homemaker.

Despite these advances, modern women in Western society still face challenges in the workplace as well as with the topics of education, violence, health care, politics, and motherhood, and others. Sexism can be a main concern and barrier for women almost anywhere, though its forms, perception, and gravity vary between societies and social classes. There has been an increase in the endorsement of egalitarian gender roles in the home by both women and men. Although a greater number of women are seeking higher education, their salaries are often less than those of men.

CBS News said in that in the United States women who are ages 30 to 44 and hold a university degree make 62 percent of what similarly qualified men do, a lower rate than in all but three of the 19 countries for which numbers are available. It also states that " violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women ". Violence against women remains a widespread problem, fueled, especially outside the West, by patriarchal social values, lack of adequate laws, and lack of enforcement of existing laws.

Social norms that exist in many parts of the world hinder progress towards protecting women from violence. Specific forms of violence that affect women include female genital mutilation , sex trafficking , forced prostitution , forced marriage , rape , sexual harassment , honor killings , acid throwing , and dowry related violence. Governments can be complicit in violence against women, such as when stoning is used as a legal punishment, mostly for women accused of adultery.

There have also been many forms of violence against women which have been prevalent historically, notably the burning of witches , the sacrifice of widows such as sati and foot binding. The prosecution of women accused of witchcraft has a long tradition; for example, during the early modern period between the 15th and 18th centuries , witch trials were common in Europe and in the European colonies in North America.

Today, there remain regions of the world such as parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, rural North India, and Papua New Guinea where belief in witchcraft is held by many people, and women accused of being witches are subjected to serious violence. In Saudi Arabia , witchcraft remains a crime punishable by death , and in the country beheaded a woman for 'witchcraft and sorcery'. It is also the case that certain forms of violence against women have been recognized as criminal offenses only during recent decades, and are not universally prohibited, in that many countries continue to allow them.

This is especially the case with marital rape. Sexual violence against women greatly increases during times of war and armed conflict , during military occupation , or ethnic conflicts ; most often in the form of war rape and sexual slavery. Contemporary examples of sexual violence during war include rape during the Armenian Genocide , rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War , rape in the Bosnian War , rape during the Rwandan genocide , and rape during Second Congo War. In Colombia, the armed conflict has also resulted in increased sexual violence against women. Laws and policies on violence against women vary by jurisdiction. In the European Union , sexual harassment and human trafficking are subject to directives.

Women in different parts of the world dress in different ways, with their choices of clothing being influenced by local culture, religious tenets, traditions, social norms, and fashion trends, amongst other factors. Different societies have different ideas about modesty. However, in many jurisdictions, women's choices in regard to dress are not always free, with laws limiting what they may or may not wear. This is especially the case in regard to Islamic dress. These laws—both those mandating and those prohibiting certain articles of dress—are highly controversial. The total fertility rate TFR — the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime — differs significantly between different regions of the world.

In , the highest estimated TFR was in Niger 6. In many parts of the world, there has been a change in family structure over the past few decades. For instance, in the West, there has been a trend of moving away from living arrangements that include the extended family to those which only consist of the nuclear family. There has also been a trend to move from marital fertility to non-marital fertility. Children born outside marriage may be born to cohabiting couples or to single women.

While births outside marriage are common and fully accepted in some parts of the world, in other places they are highly stigmatized, with unmarried mothers facing ostracism, including violence from family members, and in extreme cases even honor killings. The social role of the mother differs between cultures. In many parts of the world, women with dependent children are expected to stay at home and dedicate all their energy to child raising, while in other places mothers most often return to paid work see working mother and stay-at-home mother. Particular religious doctrines have specific stipulations relating to gender roles , social and private interaction between the sexes, appropriate dressing attire for women, and various other issues affecting women and their position in society.

In many countries, these religious teachings influence the criminal law , or the family law of those jurisdictions see Sharia law , for example. The relation between religion, law and gender equality has been discussed by international organizations. Single-sex education has traditionally been dominant and is still highly relevant. Universal education, meaning state-provided primary and secondary education independent of gender, is not yet a global norm, even if it is assumed in most developed countries. In some Western countries, women have surpassed men at many levels of education. Younger women today are far more likely to have completed a tertiary qualification: in 19 of the 30 OECD countries, more than twice as many women aged 25 to 34 have completed tertiary education than have women aged 55 to In 21 of 27 OECD countries with comparable data, the number of women graduating from university-level programmes is equal to or exceeds that of men.

Research shows that while women are studying at prestigious universities at the same rate as men they are not being given the same chance to join the faculty. Sociologist Harriet Zuckerman has observed that the more prestigious an institute is, the more difficult and time-consuming it will be for women to obtain a faculty position there. In , Harvard University tenured its first woman in chemistry, Cynthia Friend, and in its first woman in physics, Melissa Franklin.

She also observed that women were more likely to hold their first professional positions as instructors and lecturers while men are more likely to work first in tenure positions. According to Smith and Tang, as of , 65 percent of men and only 40 percent of women held tenured positions and only 29 percent of all scientists and engineers employed as assistant professors in four-year colleges and universities were women. In , women earned 9 percent of the PhDs awarded in engineering , but only one percent of those women became professors. In , 11 percent of professors in science and engineering were women. In relation, only deans of engineering schools were women, which is less than 1 percent of the total. Even in psychology , a degree in which women earn the majority of PhDs, they hold a significant amount of fewer tenured positions, roughly 19 percent in World literacy is lower for females than for males.

Women are underrepresented in government in most countries. In January , the global average of women in national assemblies was For example, women's suffrage in the United States was achieved gradually, first at state and local levels in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, then in when women in the US received universal suffrage with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Some Western countries were slow to allow women to vote, notably Switzerland, where women gained the right to vote in federal elections in , and in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women were granted the right to vote on local issues only in , when the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland ; [] [] and Liechtenstein , in , through a women's suffrage referendum.

Women have, throughout history, made contributions to science, literature and art. One area where women have been permitted most access historically was that of obstetrics and gynecology prior to the 18th century, caring for pregnant women in Europe was undertaken by women; from the mid 18th century onwards, medical monitoring of pregnant women started to require rigorous formal education, to which women did not generally have access, and thus the practice was largely transferred to men.

Writing was generally also considered acceptable for upper-class women, although achieving success as a female writer in a male-dominated world could be very difficult; as a result of several women writers adopted a male pen name e. George Sand , George Eliot. There are music movements, [ clarification needed ] events and genres related to women, women's issues and feminism. Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoire , music history textbooks and music encyclopedias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music , Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned.

Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal , although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands. Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres. While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, and there are few women musicologists , women became involved in music education " According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London's The Independent , women musicians in classical music are " According to the UK's Radio 3 editor, Edwina Wolstencroft, the classical music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, but women are much less likely to have positions of authority, such as being the leader of an orchestra.

Femininity also called womanliness or girlishness is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constructed, [] some behaviors considered feminine are biologically influenced. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Female adult human. For other uses, see Woman disambiguation and Women disambiguation. Science Technology. Arts Humanities. Popular culture. By country. First Second Third Fourth. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. General variants. Religious variants.

Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Further information: girl , virgin , mother , wife , daughter , goodwife , godmother , lady , maid , maiden , and widow. Main article: Sexual differentiation in humans. Main articles: Menstrual cycle and Menstruation. Main articles: Sex differences in human physiology and Secondary sex characteristic. Further information: Women's health and Maternal death. Main article: Reproductive rights. Main article: Gender role. Main article: Violence against women. Women's clothing varies highly in different cultures.

From left to right: Afghan women wearing burqas , Japanese women wearing kimonos , and German women in casual tank tops and miniskirts. Further information: Fashion , Modesty , Clothing , and Hijab by country. Further information: Mother. Main article: Female education. Main article: Literacy. Main articles: Timeline of women's suffrage and List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government.

Main articles: Women in science , Women artists , and Women writers. Main article: Gender symbol. Main article: Femininity. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. The spelling "wifman" also occurs: C. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. Next comes the naming of the mother of the race. She was man and more than man because of her maternity. Originally published in two volumes, and , by The European Publishing Company.

Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 August The Tower of Babel. An Etymological Dictionary of the German Language. Archived from the original on November 1, Translated by John Francis Davis, D. Litl, M. Daily Telegraph. ISSN Retrieved Its derivation is uncertain, perhaps from an Old English word which has not survived: another theory is that it developed from Old English 'gyrela', meaning 'dress, apparel': or was a diminutive form of a borrowing from another West Germanic Language. OED Online. September Oxford University Press. Heywood Dialogue Prouerbes Eng. Tongue i. D, 'The boy thy husbande, and thou the gyrle his wyfe.

Archived from the original PDF on Nature Education. Retrieved August 23, Sex Begins in the Womb. National Academies Press US. All human individuals—whether they have an XX, an XY, or an atypical sex chromosome combination—begin development from the same starting point. During early development the gonads of the fetus remain undifferentiated; that is, all fetal genitalia are the same and are phenotypically female. After approximately 6 to 7 weeks of gestation, however, the expression of a gene on the Y chromosome induces changes that result in the development of the testes. Thus, this gene is singularly important in inducing testis development. The production of testosterone at about 9 weeks of gestation results in the development of the reproductive tract and the masculinization the normal development of male sex characteristics of the brain and genitalia.

In contrast to the role of the fetal testis in differentiation of a male genital tract and external genitalia in utero, fetal ovarian secretions are not required for female sex differentiation. PMID BMC Public Health. PMC Blackwell Publishing. Reproductive Health CDC". November 14, Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 8 March Archived from the original on 10 September The Medical Clinics of North America. Bornstein, ed. SAGE Publications. In addition, there is a current lack of appropriate vocabulary to refer to the external female genitals, using, for example, 'vagina' and 'vulva' as if they were synonyms, as if using these terms incorrectly were harmless to the sexual and psychological development of women.

Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. S2CID Scientific American. World Health Organization. Retrieved August 24, Horizon Oxford Dictionaries English. Geneva [Switzerland]: World Health Organisation. Archived PDF from the original on Washington, D. Archived from the original on As anarcho-communism emerged in the midth century, it had an intense debate with Bakuninist collectivism and, as such, within the anarchist movement itself, over participation in syndicalism and the workers movement as well as on other issues. Between and , [35] with the "perspective of an immanent revolution", [35] who was "opposed to the official workers' movement, which was then in the process of formation general Social Democratisation.

They were opposed not only to political statist struggles but also to strikes which put forward wage or other claims, or which were organised by trade unions. This anti-reformist tendency was accompanied by an anti-organisational tendency, and its partisans declared themselves in favor of agitation amongst the unemployed for the expropriation of foodstuffs and other articles, for the expropriatory strike and, in some cases, for ' individual recuperation ' or acts of terrorism. From onwards, the Russian counterparts of these anti-syndicalist anarchist-communists become partisans of economic terrorism and illegal ' expropriations '. Moreover, they were clearly meant to be exemplary, invitations to revolt. The Italian Giuseppe Ciancabilla — wrote in "Against organization" that "we don't want tactical programs, and consequently we don't want organization.

Having established the aim, the goal to which we hold, we leave every anarchist free to choose from the means that his sense, his education, his temperament, his fighting spirit suggest to him as best. We don't form fixed programs and we don't form small or great parties. But we come together spontaneously, and not with permanent criteria, according to momentary affinities for a specific purpose, and we constantly change these groups as soon as the purpose for which we had associated ceases to be, and other aims and needs arise and develop in us and push us to seek new collaborators, people who think as we do in the specific circumstance.

Most anarchist publications in the United States were in Yiddish, German, or Russian, but Free Society was published in English, permitting the dissemination of anarchist communist thought to English-speaking populations in the United States. According to anarchist historian Max Nettlau , the first use of the term libertarian communism was in November , when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines. In Ukraine the anarcho-communist guerrilla leader Nestor Makhno led an independent anarchist army in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War. A commander of the peasant Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine , also known as the Anarchist Black Army , Makhno led a guerrilla campaign opposing both the Bolshevik "Reds" and monarchist "Whites".

The revolutionary autonomous movement of which he was a part made various tactical military pacts while fighting various forces of reaction and organizing the Free Territory of Ukraine , an anarchist society , committed to resisting state authority, whether capitalist or Bolshevik. Specifically, they wanted to establish communal land rights for Mexico's indigenous population, which had mostly lost its land to the wealthy elite of European descent. A group of exiled Russian anarchists attempted to address and explain the anarchist movement's failures during the Russian Revolution. The pamphlet is an analysis of the basic anarchist beliefs, a vision of an anarchist society, and recommendations as to how an anarchist organization should be structured. The four main principles by which an anarchist organization should operate, according to the Platform , are ideological unity, tactical unity, collective action , and federalism.

The platform argues that "We have vital need of an organization which, having attracted most of the participants in the anarchist movement, would establish a common tactical and political line for anarchism and thereby serve as a guide for the whole movement". The Platform attracted strong criticism from many sectors on the anarchist movement of the time including some of the most influential anarchists such as Voline , Errico Malatesta , Luigi Fabbri , Camillo Berneri , Max Nettlau , Alexander Berkman , [72] Emma Goldman and Gregori Maximoff.

Faure in his text "Anarchist synthesis" has the view that "these currents were not contradictory but complementary, each having a role within anarchism: anarcho-syndicalism as the strength of the mass organisations and the best way for the practice of anarchism; libertarian communism as a proposed future society based on the distribution of the fruits of labour according to the needs of each one; anarcho-individualism as a negation of oppression and affirming the individual right to development of the individual, seeking to please them in every way. Miguel Jimenez, a founding member of the Iberian Anarchist Federation FAI , summarized this as follows: too much influence in it of marxism , it erroneously divided and reduced anarchists between individualist anarchists and anarcho-communist sections, and it wanted to unify the anarchist movement along the lines of the anarcho-communists.

He saw anarchism as more complex than that, that anarchist tendencies are not mutually exclusive as the platformists saw it and that both individualist and communist views could accommodate anarchosyndicalism. The main goal there was conciling anarcho-communism with anarcho-syndicalism. Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze pointed out that during early twentieth century, the terms libertarian communism and anarchist communism became synonymous within the international anarchist movement as a result of the close connection they had in Spain see Anarchism in Spain with libertarian communism becoming the prevalent term.

The most extensive application of anarcho-communist ideas i. In , the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring the popular front back to power. Months later, the former ruling class responded with an attempted coup causing the Spanish Civil War — The events known as the Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia , Aragon , Andalusia , and parts of the Levante.

Factories were run through worker committees, agrarian areas became collectivised and run as libertarian communes. Anarchist historian Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or at least indirectly in the Spanish Revolution, [82] which he claimed "came closer to realizing the ideal of the free stateless society on a vast scale than any other revolution in history". Although every sector of the stateless parts of Spain had undergone workers' self-management , collectivisation of agricultural and industrial production , and in parts using money or some degree of private property, a heavy regulation of markets by democratic communities, there were other areas throughout Spain that used no money at all, and followed principles in accordance with " From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs ".

One such example was the libertarian communist village of Alcora in the Valencian Community , where money was entirely absent, and distribution of properties and services was done based upon needs, not who could afford them. There was no distinction between rich and poor, and everyone held everything in common. Buildings that used to function as shops were made storehouses, where instead of buying and selling, which didn't exist in Alcora during the war, they were centers for distribution, where everyone took freely without paying. Labour was only conducted for enjoyment, with levels of productivity, quality of life, and general prosperity having dramatically risen after the fall of markets.

Common ownership of property allowed for each inhabitant of the village to fulfil their needs without lowering themselves for the sake of profit, and each individual living in Alcora found themselves as ungoverned, anarchists free of rulers and private property. Anarcho-communism entered into internal debates once again over the issue of organization in the post-World War II era.

It is one of the key texts of the anarchist-communist current known as platformism. The new decision making process was founded on unanimity : each person has a right of veto on the orientations of the federation. The FCL published the same year the Manifeste du communisme libertaire. Several groups quit the FCL in December , disagreeing with the decision to present "revolutionary candidates" to the legislative elections. A group called Entente anarchiste appeared which was formed of militants who didn't like the new ideological orientation that the OPB was giving the FCL seeing it was authoritarian and almost marxist. This move alienated some members of the FCL and thus produced the end of the organization. The new base principles of the FA were written by the individualist anarchist Charles-Auguste Bontemps and the non-platformist anarcho-communist Maurice Joyeux which established an organization with a plurality of tendencies and autonomy of groups organized around synthesist principles.

Inside the FAI, the Anarchist Groups of Proletarian Action GAAP was founded, led by Pier Carlo Masini, which "proposed a Libertarian Party with an anarchist theory and practice adapted to the new economic, political and social reality of post-war Italy, with an internationalist outlook and effective presence in the workplaces [ These groups emphasized direct action , informal affinity groups and expropriation for financing anarchist activity.

These groups started organizing themselves outside the FAI in organizations such as O. This movement was influential in the autonomia movements of the seventies. They published Fronte Libertario della lotta di classe in Bologna and Comunismo libertario from Modena. These organizations were also inspired on synthesist principles. Libertarian Communism was a socialist journal founded in and produced in part by members of the Socialist Party of Great Britain. In recent times platformist organisations founded the now-defunct International Libertarian Solidarity network and its successor, the Anarkismo network; which is run collaboratively by roughly 30 platformist organisations around the world.

On the other hand, contemporary insurrectionary anarchism inherits the views and tactics of anti-organizational anarcho-communism [35] [93] and illegalism. In , the group claimed responsibility for a bomb campaign targeting several European Union institutions. The abolition of money, prices, and wage labor is central to anarchist communism. With distribution of wealth being based on self-determined needs, people would be free to engage in whatever activities they found most fulfilling and would no longer have to engage in work for which they have neither the temperament nor the aptitude. Anarcho-communists argue that there is no valid way of measuring the value of any one person's economic contributions because all wealth is a common product of current and preceding generations.

To truly give numerical economic value to anything, an overwhelming amount of externalities and contributing factors would need to be taken into account — especially current or past labor contributing to the ability to utilize future labor. As Kropotkin put it: "No distinction can be drawn between the work of each man. Measuring the work by its results leads us to absurdity; dividing and measuring them by hours spent on the work also leads us to absurdity. One thing remains: put the needs above the works, and first of all recognize the right to live, and later on, to the comforts of life, for all those who take their share in production..

Communist anarchism shares many traits with collectivist anarchism , but the two are distinct. Collectivist anarchism believes in collective ownership while communist anarchism negates the entire concept of ownership in favor of the concept of usage. In addition to believing rent and other fees are exploitative, anarcho-communists feel these are arbitrary pressures inducing people to carry out unrelated functions. For example, they question why one should have to work for 'X hours' a day to merely live somewhere.

So instead of working conditionally for the sake of the wage earned, they believe in working directly for the objective at hand. Anarchist communists reject the claim: 'wage labor is necessary because people are lazy and selfish by "human nature"'. They often point out that even the so-called "idle rich" sometimes find useful things to do despite having all their needs satisfied by the labour of others. Anarcho-communists generally do not agree with the belief in a pre-set "human nature", arguing that human culture and behavior is very largely determined by socialization and the mode of production. Many anarchist communists, like Peter Kropotkin , also believe that the human evolutionary tendency is for humans to cooperate with each other for mutual benefit and survival instead of existing as lone competitors, a position that Kropotkin argued for at length.

Anarchist communists support communism as a means for ensuring the greatest freedom and well-being for everyone, rather than only the wealthy and powerful. In this sense, anarchist communism is a profoundly egalitarian philosophy. Anarchist communism as an anarchist philosophy is against hierarchy in all its forms. Some contemporary anarchist communists and advocates of post-left anarchy , such as Bob Black , reject the concept of work altogether in favor of turning necessary subsistence tasks into voluntary free play. Kropotkin said that the main authoritarian mistakes in communist experiments of the past were their being based on "religious enthusiasm" [] and the desire to live "as a family" [] where the individual had to "submit to the dictates of a punctilious morality".

Some anarcho-communists and collectivist anarchists as well reject individualism and collectivism as illusory concepts. Egoist anarchist philosophical positions are important in anarcho-communist insurrectionary anarchism. In the early 20th century, the Italian individualist anarchist Renzo Novatore advocated both revolution and anarcho-communism when he said "revolution is the fire of our will and a need of our solitary minds; it is an obligation of the libertarian aristocracy.

To create new ethical values. To create new aesthetic values. To communalize material wealth. To individualize spiritual wealth. This is the true property of individuals. The rest no! The rest is vulnerable! And all that is vulnerable will be violated! It is nonsense to speak of 'emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual,' [ Anarchy is a 'method of individualization. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved—and how enslaved!

The individuality is nowadays held in far stronger bondage by property, than by the combined power of State, religion and morality [ Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand —that leads to the dissolution of private property , to expropriation.

Individualism and Communism go hand in hand. Anarchist communists counter the capitalist conception that communal property can only be maintained by force and that such a position is neither fixed in nature [] nor unchangeable in practice, citing numerous examples of communal behavior occurring naturally even within capitalist systems. As such the prominent anarcho-communist Alexander Berkman maintained that "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business.

Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people. Land, machinery, and all other public utilities will be collective property, neither to be bought nor sold. Actual use will be considered the only title-not to ownership but to possession. The organization of the coal miners, for example, will be in charge of the coal mines, not as owners but as the operating agency.

Similarly will the railroad brotherhoods run the railroads, and so on. Collective possession, cooperatively managed in the interests of the community, will take the place of personal ownership privately conducted for profit. An important difference between anarchist communism and Marxist communism is to whom the product of the worker's labor belongs. Both ideologies believe that the product of labor does not belong to the capitalist due to it being produced by the worker and not the employer, however, there are slight differences between the opinions taken by anarchist communist Peter Kropotkin and Karl Marx. Marx stated that the product of the worker's labor belongs to the worker due to it being produced by the worker.

In contrast, Kropotkin believed that the product of the worker's labor belongs to the community as a whole. Kropotkin argued that this was the case because the worker relied on the previous work of untold millions to even begin his particular form of labor, and therefore, his work should belong to the community, since he benefited from the community. Anarcho-communism has been critical of a simple call for worker's ownership of workplaces and their administration as cooperatives.

While not at odds with syndicalism as a tactic, it opposes the vision of anarcho-syndicalism as a theory, which sees a post-capitalist economy being made up of federations of industrial syndicates. Anarcho-communism proposes that the future society be organised territorially through free communes localities instead of industrially through workers' unions syndicates. Each commune is perceived as an integrated political-economic unit, removing the distinction between work and community, as well as existing as part of a wider communal-confederation made up of other such autonomous communes, linked together via voluntary contractual agreements.

This is seen as overcoming the economic-centrism of more "workerist" forms of socialism which focus on the workplace alone as a site of struggle. But what of the syndicalist ideal of "collectivized" self-managed enterprises that are coordinated by like occupations on a national level and coordinated geographically by "collectives" on a local level? What " economic democracy " meant in its profoundest sense was free, "democratic" access to the means of life, the counterpart of political democracy, that is, the guarantee of freedom from material want. It is a dirty bourgeois trick, in which many radicals unknowingly participate, that "economic democracy" has been re-interpreted as "employee ownership" and "workplace democracy" and has come to mean workers' "participation" in profit sharing and industrial management rather than freedom from the tyranny of the factory, rationalized labor, and "planned production," which is usually exploitative production with the complicity of the workers.

Whereas the syndicalist alternative re-privatizes the economy into "self-managed" collectives and opens the way to their degeneration into traditional forms of private property—whether "collectively" owned or not—libertarian municipalism politicizes the economy and dissolves it into the civic domain. Neither factory or land appear as separate interests within the communal collective. Nor can workers, farmers, technicians, engineers, professionals, and the like perpetuate their vocational identities as separate interests that exist apart from the citizen body in face-to-face assemblies. The term communism in anarcho-communism should be taken to refer to a polity of communes as well as an economy of the commons.

According to platformist anarcho-communist Wayne Price:. Today's proposals for Parecon , in which workers are rewarded for the intensity and duration of their labor in a cooperative economy, would fit into Bakunin's or Marx's concept of a transitory, beginning, phase, of a free society. Instead he proposed that a revolutionary society should "transform itself immediately into a communist society, that is, should go immediately into what Marx had regarded as the "more advanced", completed, phase of communism.

Kropotkin and those who agreed with him called themselves "anarchist-communists" or "communist anarchists" , although they continued to regard themselves as a part of the broader socialist movement. Leninists believe that without a transitional period of state control their interpretation of the dictatorship of the proletariat , it would be impossible for any revolution to maintain the momentum or cohesion to defend the new society against external and internal threats. Friedrich Engels noted: "Without a previous social revolution the abolition of the state is nonsense; the abolition of capital is in itself the social revolution and involves a change in the whole method of production.

Anarchists reject the Marxist—Leninist model of the "dictatorship of the proletariat," arguing that any revolutionary minority taking over state power would be just as authoritarian as the ruling class in capitalism to defend the new state, and would eventually constitute itself as a new ruling class. As an extension of this, anarcho-communists counter-argue that decentralized, stateless collective federations are sufficient to give both power to workers and preserve personal freedom and point to the fact that no socialist state has ever showed signs of "withering away". The Spanish Revolution is cited as an example of successful anarchist military mobilization, albeit one crushed by superior forces.

Anarcho-communism calls for a decentralized confederal form in relationships of mutual aid and free association between communes as an alternative to the centralism of the nation-state. Peter Kropotkin thus suggested:. Representative government has accomplished its historical mission; it has given a mortal blow to court-rule; and by its debates it has awakened public interest in public questions. But to see in it the government of the future socialist society is to commit a gross error. Each economic phase of life implies its own political phase; and it is impossible to touch the very basis of the present economic life—private property—without a corresponding change in the very basis of the political organization.

Life already shows in which direction the change will be made. Not in increasing the powers of the State, but in resorting to free organization and free federation in all those branches which are now considered as attributes of the State. Hence the confederation of communes "the Commune of communes" is reworked economically as well as politically into a shared universe of publicly managed resources. The management of the economy, precisely because it is a public activity, does not degenerate into privatized interactions between enterprises; rather it develops into confederalized interactions between municipalities.

That is to say, the very elements of societal interaction are expanded from real or potential privatized components to institutionally real public components. Confederation becomes a public project by definition, not only because of shared needs and resources. If there is any way to avoid the emergence of the city-state, not to speak of self-serving bourgeois "cooperatives," it is through a municipalization of political life that is so complete that politics embraces not only what we call the public sphere but material means of life as well.

There have been several attempts, both successful and unsuccessful, at creating other anarchist-communist societies throughout much of the world. Anarchist-communists and some green anarchists especially anarcho-primitivists argue that hunter-gatherer tribes , like families, were early forms of anarchist-communism due to their egalitarian nature. Early Christian communities have also been described as having anarcho-communist characteristics.

In anthropology and the social sciences, a gift economy or gift culture is a mode of exchange where valuable goods and services are regularly given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards i. Traditional societies dominated by gift exchange were small in scale and geographically remote from each other. As states formed to regulate trade and commerce within their boundaries, market exchange came to dominate. Nonetheless, the practice of gift exchange continues to play an important role in modern society.

The expansion of the Internet has witnessed a resurgence of the gift economy, especially in the technology sector. Engineers, scientists and software developers create open-source software projects. The Linux kernel and the GNU operating system are prototypical examples for the gift economy's prominence in the technology sector and its active role in instating the use of permissive free software and copyleft licenses, which allow free reuse of software and knowledge. Other examples include file-sharing , the commons and open access. Anarchist scholar Uri Gordon has argued:. The collaborative development of free software like the Linux operating system and applications such as OpenOffice clearly approximate an informational anarchist communism.

Moreover, for anarchists it is precisely the logic of expropriation and electronic piracy that enables a radical political extension of the cultural ideals of the free manipulation, circulation and use of information associated with the " hacker ethic" Himanen The space of illegality created by P2P peer-to-peer file-sharing opens up the possibility, not only of the open circulation of freely-given information and software as it is on the Internet today, but also of conscious copyright violation.

The Internet, then, enables not only communist relations around information, but also the militant contamination and erosion of non-communist regimes of knowledge—a technological "weapon" to equalise access to information, eating away at intellectual property rights by rendering them unenforceable. The interest in such economic forms goes back to Peter Kropotkin , who saw in the hunter-gatherer tribes he had visited the paradigm of " mutual aid ". The author postulates the growth of a "military-coinage-slave complex" around this time, through which mercenary armies looted cities and human beings were cut from their social context to work as slaves in Greece, Rome and elsewhere in the Eurasian continent. The extreme violence of the period marked by the rise of great empires in China, India and the Mediterranean was, in this way, connected with the advent of large-scale slavery and the use of coins to pay soldiers, together with the obligation enforced by the State for its subjects to pay its taxes in currency.

This was also the same time that the great religions spread out and the general questions of philosophical enquiry emerged on world history—many of those directly related, as in Plato's Republic, with the nature of debt and its relation to ethics. The success was short-lived and much less widespread than the anarchism in Spain. Trumbullplex , as an example of an anarchist community, operates to serve the common good through sheltering residents within a neighbourhood of Detroit , Michigan. This allows individuals who've previously gone into debt by means of rent to escape their economic burdens and join a democratic commune. The commune has served as a hangout for young members of the locality, alongside a place intended for teamwork and cooperative decision making.

The commune has existed since Its current ideology, the same as its founding ideology, was to establish a settlement based on principles of mutual aid and the absence of hierarchy. Give-away shops , free shops, or free stores, are stores where all goods are free. They are similar to charity shops , with mostly second-hand items—only everything is available at no cost. Whether it is a book, a piece of furniture, a garment or a household item, it is all freely given away, although some operate a one-in, one-out—type policy swap shops.

The anarchist s countercultural group The Diggers [] opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art. Today the idea is kept alive by the new generations of social centres , anarchists and environmentalists who view the idea as an intriguing [ clarification needed ] way to raise awareness about consumer culture and to promote the reuse of commodities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see Libertarian Communism journal. For libertarian currents in Marxism, see Libertarian Marxism. Theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of capitalism, private property and wage labor. This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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Theoretical works. Related topics. Main article: International Workingmen's Association. Schools of thought. Theory Practice. By region. Main article: Peter Kropotkin. Main article: Insurrectionary anarchism. Main article: Spanish Revolution of Anti-capitalism Class conflict Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Commune Commune model of government Communist society Critique of political economy Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Market abolitionism Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World communism World revolution.

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