⌛ Theme Of Love In Atonement

Thursday, October 14, 2021 9:59:08 PM

Theme Of Love In Atonement



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鄧麗君 ~ 償還 Teresa Teng - Chang Huan (Love's Atonement)

This, then, was the human predicament: God created us with the expectation that we would live a life of moral perfection. However, we have failed to do this. Thus, death has come upon us. God saw it necessary to salvage at least part of the human race, but in order to accomplish this, some sort of satisfaction needed to take place. Moreover, for it to be effective, that satisfaction needed to be greater than simply returning what was due to God.

Therefore, only God could have provided this sort of satisfaction. Yet, if it was to benefit to humanity, it had to be made by a human being. Thus, the satisfaction needed to be furnished by someone who was both God and a human being. Consequently, Anselm argues, the incarnation was a logical necessity. Without it, there was no possibility of satisfaction, and thus no possibility of forgiveness. This is precisely why Jesus came. Being both God and a sinless human, Jesus is capable of representing humanity and offering more than what is required of him as a human being.

The death of the God-man was of infinite value. By way of contrast, to both the moral influence theory and the ransom theory, the substitutionary theory of the atonement is focused Godward. Unlike the former two theories, substitutionary atonement is directed neither toward humanity nor toward the evil one. Before moving on, it is important to note that while these are competing theories of the atonement, they are not entirely incompatible. Rather, the proponents of each view argue that their particular view of the atonement is the primary way one should understand the atonement. Moreover, they would suggest that their view possesses the explanatory power to make sense of the entire corpus of Scripture related to the atonement.

This, then, sets us off to our next task: finding out what Scripture says about the atonement. At this point, we will briskly survey the relevant texts of Scripture to construct a biblical view of the atonement. The ending of Job seems to allude to substitutionary atonement. God was angry with them for insisting that Job was being punished for sins he committed. There are two details of this story that seem to point to substitutionary atonement. This is because God refused to deal with them due to their wrongdoing. Instead, he required someone to mediate between him and the guilty party. It is also interesting that the mediator God chose, Job, was a human being like his friends. This may suggest that there needed to be some sort of connection, some point of commonality between the mediator and the guilty party being represented.

Right before the final plague was sent upon Egypt, God instructed each household in Israel to take an unblemished lamb and slaughter it before twilight. They were told to take the blood of the lamb and apply it to the doorpost and doorway of their house. That same night, they were to eat the roasted meat along with bitter herbs and bread made without yeast, and to do so in haste—their cloaks tucked into their belts, their sandals already on their feet, and their staffs in hand. God further instructed those who carefully followed his instructions and escaped Egypt to continue to celebrate this feast as a lasting ordinance.

When we turn to the pages of the New Testament, several references are made suggesting a connection between the atonement and Passover. First, the Passover lamb was unblemished. This suggested that the victim needed to be innocent. Second, salvation was by substitution. The only firstborn males spared were the ones in whose families a lamb had died instead. And finally, the Judge and Savior are the same person.

To further expand our understanding of the atonement, we now turn to the Old Testament sacrificial system. These sacrifices were necessary not to deter people from committing further sins nor to reform their sinful mindsets, but to atone for sins that deserved to be punished. God then saw the atoning sacrifice rather than the sin. The covering of the sin meant that the penalty no longer had to be exacted from the sinner. These were the terms of payment God had specified for sins committed. In short, a life had to be taken for a life to be spared. Apart from the significance of the word atonement, the actual features of the ceremony are significant to understanding its intended effect.

First of all, the sacrificial animal had to be spotless. This was to indicate that the animal was an innocent substitute for the guilty party. This laying on of hands represented the confession of sins committed and the symbolic transference of guilt to the innocent victim. Of course, the blood of the animal was central to the significance of the atonement. Blood was the symbol of life, and a life needed to be taken in order for sin to be forgiven. The annual Day of Atonement adds some interesting details to our understanding of the atonement. The sacrifice on the Day of Atonement was much like a typical sin offering, except for a few features. First, only the high priest could perform the sacrifice. Second, the sacrifice was offered for the entire Israelite community.

Third, the blood was to be sprinkled onto the Holy of Holies, located in the innermost chamber of the Temple. And finally, two animals were sacrificed. Reflecting back on this solemn day in the Jewish calendar, the author of Hebrews views the Day of Atonement as a mere shadow of what would come in Christ. Second, the author of Hebrews informs us that the victim offered on the Day of Atonement was symbolic of the sacrifice Jesus offered for humanity. But there is one major difference: Jesus was not only the mediator, he was also the sacrifice. This is one of the first passages in the Old Testament to indicate the insufficiency of the sacrificial system.

With the immanent ruin of Israel in view, Isaiah receives a vision from God regarding its future deliverance. They were simply going through the motions. The author of Hebrews explains:. The law is only a shadow of the good things that are coming—not the realities themselves. For this reason it can never, by the same sacrifices repeated endlessly year after year, make perfect those who draw near to worship…But those sacrifices are an annual reminder of sins, because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. Of all the passages in the Old Testament, none is more consistently applied to Jesus by the New Testament authors than Isaiah First Peter contains extensive quotations from Isaiah And finally, Phillip found the Ethiopian eunuch reading Isaiah —a description of the servant being led like a sheep to the slaughter and having his justice and life taken away— right before telling him the good news about Jesus Acts Additionally, there are dozens of allusions throughout the New Testament that connect Jesus to the suffering servant of Isaiah We now turn our attention to the New Testament to gather more detailed information about the atonement.

The early Pauline epistles provide us with a rich collection of teaching on the atonement. Of course, they did not think that Jesus deserved to be cursed by God in any way. Therefore, they must have understood this to mean that it was our curse that Jesus was bearing. Instead, the legal consequences of our sin were transferred: Jesus voluntarily accepted liability for our sins. Finally, Paul is clear in his writing that Jesus died on our behalf. New Testament scholar Martin Kahler describes the Gospels as "passion narratives with long introductions. Jesus had a powerful conviction that his life and eventual death were a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies.

Jesus here quotes Isaiah , the suffering servant passage mentioned earlier. More than this, Jesus saw his future death as a ransom. Jesus also saw himself as our substitute. With his impending death on the cross in sight, there is little doubt that Jesus was thinking about the substitutionary death he was to undergo. There are other indications that Jesus saw himself as a sacrificial substitute for the sins of others. Take this cup from me. This is strongly confirmed by the Wisdom literature and the prophetic writings. There is no doubt that Jesus was familiar with this Old Testament imagery. Later that night, when a detachment came to arrest Jesus, Simon Peter drew his sword to defend Jesus. John He was to drink the cup of wrath originally reserved for us.

To sum up, there is not one discordant voice among the Gospel writers. In our final treatment of Scripture, we will evaluate the New Testament writings that do not fall into the two previous categories. Peter very much agrees with the other New Testament writers: Jesus died a substitutionary death. There are two points of interest in this verse. The second point of interest is that God himself came to earth as Jesus. The imagery John uses here is easily traced back to the Old Testament atonement practice mentioned above. All in all, our brief survey of Scripture has left us with a harmony of voices that singularly affirm the central theme of the atonement: Jesus came to die a substitutionary death for humanity.

Although other themes add richness and depth to our understanding of the atonement, they in no way replace the sin-bearing sense that defines it. This time, however, we will try to harmonize each of the three major theories with our findings from Scripture. Because of this, it is no wonder that some theologians have found its atoning value there. To advocates of the moral influence theory, the power of the cross does not lie in its objective, sin-bearing transaction, but in its subjective, inspiring power. Yet there are three reasons the moral influence theory cannot be the principal way of understanding the atonement. First, champions of the moral influence theory selectively employ passages of Scripture that undergird their theory and reject texts that are incompatible with it.

His reasoning? Thus, we should maintain that Paul corrupted the pure message of Jesus due to the doctrinally tainting influence of Isaiah Secondly, the moral influence theory is flawed in its central emphasis. With this, Scripture is in wholehearted agreement. So far, then, we are in agreement. Granted, true love must be self-giving. But without purpose, an otherwise self-giving act of love would be nothing more than foolishness. Take the example of being trapped in a burning building. If you ran into a burning building in order to rescue me and did so successfully, but in the process lost your own life, then I would consider your actions to be a demonstration of your love. The cross can be understood as an act of love insofar as it is understood to be a simultaneous act of justice.

Fully aware of these arguments, advocates of the moral influence theory believe that they still have the last word. And in the parable of the lost son, the father took back his repentant son without any sort of punishment Luke In both of these parables, God demonstrates his forgiveness without any mention of an atoning sacrifice. Two responses can be furnished. First of all, parables are not meant to provide a point-by-point correspondence between the story and the message.

Using the same line of reasoning, Jesus is not mentioned in these parables, either. Does that suggest, then, that he is also unnecessary for our forgiveness? Secondly, both of these parables contain characters that Jesus deliberately contrasts. At the end of the day, Scripture is the final arbiter for determining how we should understand the atonement. Abelard wrongly tries to separate these two and render them mutually exclusive. Yet Scripture affirms both motivations as operative in the cross. Brought together by one single act, God put his unfailing love and uncompromising justice on display. Anselm and Abelard are not divided on this point. But ultimately, Abelard was mistaken in denying the substitutionary nature of the cross.

Next, we turn to reevaluate the ransom theory. Like the moral influence theory, there is much to commend the ransom theory. According to the ransom theory, God triumphed over Satan and the forces of evil through the cross. Substitutionary atonement affirms this fact. Jesus achieved a victory over evil when he gave his life as a ransom. Yet from this point on, the two theories dramatically diverge.

Scripture is clear about this fact. And since God is the one who furnished the law, he is also the one to whom the debt must be paid for its violation. Otherwise, humanity would not have been fully redeemed. Additionally, much of what the ransom theory claims hinges upon the belief that Satan has rightful possession of the human race. Surprisingly, some passages of Scripture seem to verify this claim.

If this really means that the evil one has exclusive rights to humanity, then God must have paid a ransom to him. Yet, other texts seem to suggest that God is the sole owner of the world and its inhabitants. This passage plainly states that God is the rightful possessor of the earth and all its inhabitants. Who, then, is the rightful owner of the human race? Properly understood, then, God is the rightful owner of humanity, not Satan. This does not mean, however, that the evil one is incapable of enslaving the human race. His very name reveals the nature of his strategy.

Having succeeded in this, he is able to enslave us to sin and the fear of death. He forgave us all our sins, having canceled the written code, with its regulations, that was against us and that stood opposed to us; he took it away, nailing it to the cross. And having disarmed the powers and authorities, he made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them by the cross. And he also broke the bondage of sin, whereby Satan is able to enslave humanity. It is important to notice, however, that both the forgiveness of sins and the triumph over evil happened together. It was by his payment of our debt that he was able to overthrow the evil powers and authorities. Where, O death, is your sting?

But thanks be to God! The ransom theory helps expand our understanding of the boundless implications of the cross. By itself, however, the ransom theory is inadequate to explain how we have been freed from the curse of the law. Further, it wrongly attributes ownership of the human race to the evil one. Substitutionary atonement alone possesses this explanatory power. Furthermore, it incorporates both the loving and victorious natures of the atonement emphasized by the other two theories. First, it preserves the biblical teaching of total depravity. If we possessed the ability to make ourselves right before God, then Jesus needlessly died. Finally, substitutionary atonement crucial for understanding the New Testament teaching of law verses grace.

Thus, the New Testament declares that believers in Christ are no longer under law, but under grace Romans Consequently, the substitution theory not only coheres with these other major doctrines, in some cases it is the key to understanding them. In Cur Deus Homo , he argues that some humans must be saved in order to offset the loss of fallen angels. Therefore, the atonement was necessary. In sum, the substitution theory is the primary way to understand the atonement. The sheer volume of Scripture devoted to the atonement, clearly portrays it as a sin-bearing, substitutionary death. Moreover, the substitution theory is in harmony with other major doctrines and in some cases is essential to our understanding of them.

And finally, the other major theories of the atonement amplify our understanding of the substitution theory, yet they incapable of taking its place as the primary view of the atonement. Now that we have set a biblical foundation for substitutionary atonement, we will turn out attention to some common objections raised against it. What can you do? There are essentially two options. The first would be to demand that this person pay for the damages.

The second is to absorb the cost of the damage and to release the person of any responsibility. Of course, there may be a middle-of-the-road solution in which you both share the payment. During this walk, the men view upsetting butchery. In spite of having an excruciating shrapnel wound, Robbie makes it to the coast and is emptied. Section Three spotlights on Briony, who has predestined school to function as an attendant during the conflict.

Work is requesting, and she is threatened by her regulator, Nurse Drummond. An inundation of harmed men from the French departure shows up to the medical clinic, and the nerve racking experience of treating them makes Briony develop. In her uncommon extra energy, Briony composes stories, which she submits to magazines fruitlessly. A letter from her dad educates Briony that Paul and Lola are to be hitched. She goes to their wedding and, thereafter, visits Cecilia. Out of the blue, Robbie is available also. The air is tense, however Briony consents to make the strides important to alarm her family and the pertinent lawful specialists of her adjustment of declaration. Cecilia and Robbie see Briony off, and Briony comprehends that after she completes the errands she consented to, she should start a top to bottom interaction of "atonement.

The book's epilog uncovers that this atonement interaction was to compose the first novel itself. Briony, presently 77, describes in the primary individual. She has recently been determined to have irreversible dementia. She depicts going to a library to give her correspondence with Corporal Nettle—used to compose this book—and a while later goes to a birthday celebration tossed by her enduring family members, including Pierrot and Leon. While Briony aches to distribute her diary, she can't do as such while Paul and Lola stay alive. They are presently all around associated socialites and will without a doubt sue her for criticism. Briony concedes that her novelization has changed a few subtleties—for instance, Robbie and Cecilia both really died in the conflict, yet her fiction permitted them to live—however she mirrors that despite the fact that accomplishing atonement will be unthinkable for her, her endeavor to do so is crucial.

It focuses on Briony Tallis, the thirteen-year-old youngest daughter of three, who aspires to be a writer. She has written a play to be performed at dinner for the homecoming of her brother, Leon, and put on by herself and her three cousins who are staying with the Tallises for the summer because of a divorce between their parents. Before the play can be properly rehearsed, Briony witnesses a scene between her older sister Cecilia and the son of the family charwoman Robbie Turner. What is an innocent act is greatly misunderstood by the young imagination, and this sets off a series of events with eternal consequences.

Following the fountain scene, Briony intercepts a letter from Robbie to Cecilia and reads it. In it, she discovers perverse desires and sets out to protect her sister from this sex-craved maniac. Before she can do so, she witnesses the couple making love and mistakes it for assault, further confirming her assumption that Robbie is out to harm Cecilia.

Before the night is through, her twin cousins run away from home triggering the rest of the dinner guests to search for them in the dark night. Briony, who is searching alone, witnesses a rape taking place of her older cousin Lola. Not one to miss her opportunity, Briony convinces everyone at the scene, including authorities, that the assailant was Robbie Turner, and he is taken to jail. Part Two takes place five years later. It follows Robbie Turner as he retreats through France as a soldier during the war. The reader has learned he served three years in prison for his crime and is now able to exonerate himself by serving in the army.

Separated from his battalion, Robbie is marching through the countryside with two other corporals trying to get to the evacuation town of Dunkirk. During his march, Robbie experiences the atrocities of war, and has plenty of time to consider his situation as soldier, criminal, and victim of Briony's false accusations. The three men make it to Dunkirk which is in a state of complete chaos. Robbie is severely wounded but is determined to make it home to Cecilia who is waiting for him.

Part Three picks up the eighteen-year-old Briony who has signed up as a nurse in London. Suffering from guilt for her crime as girl, Briony hopes nursing will act as a penance for her sin. Briony is also still writing. She submits a story to a London journal which is rejected, but in the rejection she is encouraged to develop the story further as it is quite good. When the soldiers return from Dunkirk, Briony experiences the horrors of war first hand, and is humiliated at her failure to perform her duty. At the end of Part Three, Briony seeks out her older sister.

Before she does, she attends the wedding of Paul Marshall whom she knows to be Lola's rapist and Lola. Briony does nothing to stop the marriage. When she visits her sister, it is discovered that Robbie is still alive and living with Cecilia. This makes Briony happy to see. She does not so much as ask for forgiveness from the two lovers who refuse it anyhow as simply admit her guilt and seek counsel on what she can do to make it better. Robbie and Cecilia give Briony a list of instructions to follow that will help clear Robbie's name. Briony agrees to do each one, and heads back to work in London. The last we see of Robbie and Cecilia are on the tube station platform.

The final section of the boo, London, , is a letter from the author to the reader. It is revealed here that the author is Briony herself. She explains that she was able to write the war parts of the book with the aid of letters form the museum of archives and a pen-pal relationship with one of the corporals with whom Robbie marched. She also reveals that she is dying. In a final twist, Briony informs her reader that she has made up the part about visiting Cecilia and Robbie in London and how both people died in the war.

Her act to let their love last forever in the pages of her book will be her final atonement to her crime. Deceit is a major theme in this story, and it comes across in different ways. First there is the deceit of Lola and Paul Marshall. Although it is not totally explored, Lola must have known the identity of her assailant. Paul had attacked her in the children's room in the Tallis family manor before dinner. Later, he rapes her or that is what Lola claims. But Paul keeps silent while Robbie is taken to prison. Later Lola and Paul are married, and they never confess their lie. Briony too is deceitful. One could argue that she is shaken by what she witnessed and could not distinguish the difference between truth and what she imagines.

But there are too many circumstances that go against this theory. For one, Briony suffers from guilt. She would not feel guilty if she had not consciously lied. There is another type of deceit at the end of the novel, when the author twists the story around and insinuates that the so-called true story that he was presenting was actually created by one of his characters, Briony. When Briony tells the readers that this is her novel, she argues that it is her fictionalized creation and she can create any kind of ending that she wants. She can have Cecilia and Robbie die in the war or she can have them live happily ever after. It is the prerogative of the author to decide what is true, in the sense of the story, and what is not.

This is the deceit of the fiction writer. A long chain of self-centered reasoning leads the young girl to believe that Robbie is responsible for raping Lola. Later on, her childish imagination leads her to fabricate a sinister backstory to explain why she saw Robbie and Cecilia cavorting semi-clothed in the fountain together. These biases in turn drive her to surreptitiously read the lewd letter Robbie accidentally sends to Cecilia and conclude that the young man is a depraved maniac.

Together, these hasty conclusions and unnoticed biases make Briony convince herself that she saw Robbie assault Lola, and attest this misconception to the police. Tallis, and this is all it takes to fabricate a reality in which Robbie is guilty—even though that reality has no basis in actual fact. Through this and other shifts in perspective, McEwan illustrates the crucial, yet capricious, role that narrative plays in our individual understandings of truth. Atonement covers 64 years, which is long enough to do a serious amount of growing up. Everybody who wants to grow up in the book—Lola, who paints her toenails and wears perfume; Briony, who wants to learn all about how adults feel so she can write it down; Robbie, who wants to be free and pursue his own ambitions; Cecilia, who wanders around moping and smoking waiting for her life to start—gets old.

Every single one of them—even those who actually died before they had a chance, thanks to Briony's novel. The theme of guilt, forgiveness, and atonement should be extremely obvious to anyone who reads the book. The entire plot of the novel centers on a woman who devotes her entire life repenting a crime she committed while still a young girl. Articles of note that are not as obvious to the reader that have to do with this theme are things like, is Briony the only person who should feel guilty? Who else is at fault for the crime committed on that hot summer night in ?

Where is Lola's guilt for not saying anything? What about Paul Marshall's--the real assailant who gets away with rape and stands silent while an innocent man goes to prison. Then there are all the adults in Part One of the novel. How is it that so many people who are capable of understanding so much more than a thirteen-year-old girl come to rely completely on her testimony? Should more not have been done in the investigation? The question is left open at the end of the book. Does Briony finally achieve her atonement by writing her story and keeping her lovers and allowing their love to survive? The second layer to the guilt theme has to do with the history of literature.

Aside from the crime she committed as a child, Briony feels guilty for her powers as a writer. She knows she has the autonomy to write whatever story she so chooses. Just like she could send Robbie to prison, she can make him survive the war. The reliance readers put in Briony to tell them "what really happened" leaves her feeling guilty about her life's work, and she projects that guilt onto the history of the English literature canon. Although Robbie has been largely incorporated into the Tallis family, both by growing up alongside the Tallis children and by enjoying a stellar education sponsored by the family, he is nevertheless an outsider. His outsider status undeniably contributes to the swift and uncompromising isolation he experiences after Briony accuses him of raping Lola.

Meanwhile, low-born Robbie is one of the brightest and kindest characters in the novel. Instead, he is left at the mercy of a biased system while other, more morally reprehensible characters go unpunished largely because of their greater social clout. And, further, Robbie is also not immune to class prejudice, as he assumes the even lower class Danny Hardman raped Lola, never imagining that it might have been Paul Marshall who did it. The name of the book is Atonement, so you know it's a story about trying to get forgiveness for your sins. Those sins are, oddly, mostly about making up stories. And the way you try to get forgiveness is also by making up stories.

Briony did wrong by imagining that Robbie raped her cousin. Then she writes a fictionalized novel about how he didn't rape her cousin to atone for it. Paul, on the other hand, doesn't say anything about his own sin from first to last, and doesn't seem to feel the need for forgiveness either. Maybe atonement only works in a story. Just like you can't have a beginning without an end, you can't have forgiveness without a tale that tells you what you did wrong.

Arguments can be made on where the exact point is that Briony "loses her innocence. When she gives up on her play? When she reads the letter from Robbie to Cecilia? When she mistakenly observes Robbie and Cecilia making love in the library? When she witnesses Lola's rape? Or when she officially accuses Robbie of the assault to authorities? Each one of these is a plausible response. What is certain, however, is that somewhere during Part One of the novel, Briony ceases to exist as a protected child in this world and enters the exposed world of adulthood.

The narration of part one, which we learn later to be Briony herself, holds nothing back in informing the reader of this post-awareness. Briony the character is too young to realize it at the time. She is caught in between world's. Look at the moment when the search parties take flight after the twins; Briony debates on whether she is old enough to search herself, or if she should stay back under the protection of her mother. She decides on the former and this decision results in something that forever changes her life and the lives of everyone around her. Even following the arrest of Robbie, Briony yearns for her mother's comfort. There is a greater loss of innocence at play here as well. War rips the entire country apart, and eventually the world.

The bliss is innocence that was being enjoyed by Europe following "the war to end all wars" WWI is about to be stripped away in force. This innocence is represented in Leon Tallis, a character who lives for the weekends in London, doesn't think there will be a war, and feels all people are primitively good-natured. The most important plot developments in the work stem from actions or experiences that can never be erased or counteracted. As a consequence of his imprisonment, he is unable to continue his prestigious education and must instead enlist in the military. The violence and suffering that Robbie witnesses in the war traumatize him and permanently alter his temperament.

Similarly, after Briony works her first shift in the hospital caring for seriously wounded soldiers, she feels as though she has crossed into a new stage of maturity and worldliness from which she can never return. In many ways, the most irrevocable changes in the novel come when characters lose the ability to perceive their realities in a certain way. For example, as an aging Briony reflects on her past, she no longer sees the world with the tragically narcissistic perspective she held as a child—and in this way, her new perspective irretrievably reshapes the reality of her life.

It is not typical to say that "war" is a theme in any book, but it is a very important part of "Atonement" and something that needs to be addressed as a separate component to the overall themes of the book. Ian McEwan is a known activist against war and as a writer who takes a personal interest in World War Two history. His father was a Major in the British Armed Forces and McEwan grew up in different areas of the world, in Army camps, while his father was serving his duties. There is an irony that Robbie Turner must fight in the war to exonerate himself from a crime he did not commit. This highlights the injustices of any war. As much as the story is a fictional tale, the scenes that involve the war, both in France in Part Two and in the hospitals in London in Part Three, are historically accurate.

In particular, the horrors that the British Army faced as they awaited evacuation on the beaches of Dunkirk and the German planes continued their assault, is captured in extraordinary detail in "Atonement. Briony's experiences in Part Three are directly inspired from that reading for more information on this, see "Plagiarism" in the Additional Content of this Note. There is not too much to be said on it. The two world wars that took place in Europe in the first half of the 20th century are events that changed the course of human history. Ian McEwan's "Atonement" draws focus on the lasting effects these events had on the British psyche in hopes of assisting in the prevention of it from ever happening again Often times, war in literature is presented as horrible, but it at least allows for some exciting plotting.

If you're at war, you're doing something. Not so much in Atonement, though. There aren't any battles here—just a messy retreat and people being shot at. War isn't so much a plot itself as an ugly barrier in the middle of the plot. Briony the novelist, like Briony the nurse, ends up having to clean up after the war, bandaging up the story she wants to tell where war has torn it apart. If war gets in the way of people's plans, then maybe it isn't a story itself but something that ruins other stories. Here is a question to ask: Who is Briony Tallis? Is she a child criminal? A repenting nurse? A writer?

All of them? Is she a good person? An evil person? Any novel that stretches over a sixty-five year period is going to observe the characters go though periods of change and development. But "Atonement" works on a different level when it comes to identity as a theme.

Theme Of Love In Atonement decides on the former and this decision results in something Theme Of Love In Atonement forever changes her life and the lives Romeo And Juliet Responsibility everyone around her. Following the fountain scene, Briony Theme Of Love In Atonement a letter from Robbie to Cecilia and reads it. Yet, if it was to benefit to humanity, it had to be made by a human Theme Of Love In Atonement. Cecilia becomes angry with Briony. Atonement: Film And Film.

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